The identification of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies following traumatic events has been the subject of much scientific inquiry. The current study sought through meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between the use of approach and avoidance strategies (both problem-focused and emotion/cognitive focused) following trauma and psychological distress. Thirty-nine studies of coping following two types of traumatic events (interpersonal violence and severe injury) were retained in the meta-analysis. There was a consistent association between avoidance coping and distress, overall r = .37, but no association between approach coping and distress, overall r = −.03, but some important moderators existed. Implications of the results for future research regarding coping and trauma recovery are discussed.