Indirect exposure to the September 11 terrorist attacks: Does symptom structure resemble PTSD?
Article first published online: 26 FEB 2008
Copyright © 2008 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies
Journal of Traumatic Stress
Volume 21, Issue 1, pages 30–39, February 2008
How to Cite
Suvak, M., Maguen, S., Litz, B. T., Silver, R. C. and Holman, E. A. (2008), Indirect exposure to the September 11 terrorist attacks: Does symptom structure resemble PTSD?. J. Traum. Stress, 21: 30–39. doi: 10.1002/jts.20289
- Issue published online: 26 FEB 2008
- Article first published online: 26 FEB 2008
- National Science Foundation. Grant Numbers: BCS-9910223, BCS-0211039, BCS-0215937
The authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses of reports of posttraumatic stress reactions using a national probability sample of individuals indirectly exposed to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (n = 675). Reactions at three time points in the year after the attacks were best accounted for by a lower-order, 4-factor solution (Reexperiencing, Strategic Avoidance, Emotional Numbing, and Hyperarousal Symptoms). Indirect exposure to a traumatic event appears to induce a response with a similar symptom structure as responses to direct exposure.