The authors examined a prospective model investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and protective self-cognitions (self-esteem and self-efficacy) with later resource loss among 402 inner-city women who experienced childhood abuse. They predicted that women with PTSD may fail to develop or sustain protective self-cognitions that could protect against future stress. Results from the hypothesized model suggest that child abuse was associated with greater PTSD symptoms and later resource loss. PTSD symptoms were also related to protective self-cognitions, which, in turn, were associated with less resource loss. The authors also examined an alternative model exploring the relationship between resource loss and later PTSD symptoms. Findings allude to the relationship of risk and resiliency variables among women with childhood trauma histories.