Persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have neuropsychological impairments in multiple cognitive domains, though particularly in executive function. This exploratory study examined whether these cognitive impairments were alleviated following trauma-focused treatment. Fifteen women underwent neuropsychological testing within a week of treatment onset and approximately 3 months later. Results suggest medium-sized improvement in multiple aspects of executive function, including tests of cognitive flexibility/set-shifting and organization/planning. If replicated in larger samples, such findings raise the possibility that treatment may alleviate neuropsychological impairment in persons with PTSD and thus reduce risk for poor outcome.