Although previous studies have documented the psychological impact of earthquakes, less is known about potentially protective characteristics associated with healthier outcomes. In the present study, 2 samples of survivors were recruited from remote villages in Northwestern Pakistan, 7 and 19 months after the devastating October 2005 earthquake. Female gender, lower education, and closer proximity to the epicenter predicted significantly higher posttraumatic symptom levels. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, distance from the epicenter, and death of close relatives, higher dispositional optimism and higher scores on the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were significantly associated with lower symptom levels. The authors' findings in a previously unstudied population suggest that certain potentially protective mechanisms, such as optimism, may be universal regardless of culture of origin.