As the numbers of military personnel participating in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continue to grow, the percentage of individuals who return with both a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also increases. Although there appears to be significant overlap in the symptoms resulting from PTSD and TBI, the best course of treatment remains an area of controversy. The authors present initial findings from a Veterans Administration residential program for comorbid PTSD and TBI. Forty-two participants completed a program comprising psychoeducational groups and cognitive skill building that was augmented with a modification of standard cognitive processing therapy. The results suggest that residential programs that incorporate this form of cognitive therapy can anticipate meaningful participation from patients, and that it may be an effective approach to treat PTSD in individuals with a history of TBI.