Heterogeneity in clinical presentations of posttraumatic stress disorder among medical patients: Testing factor structure variation using factor mixture modeling

Authors

  • Jon D. Elhai,

    Corresponding author
    1. University of Toledo
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Psychology, University of Toledo
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  • James A. Naifeh,

    1. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Psychiatry, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
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  • David Forbes,

    1. Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health, and University of Melbourne
    Current affiliation:
    1. Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne
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  • Kendra C. Ractliffe,

    1. The University of South Dakota
    Current affiliation:
    1. Disaster Mental Health Institute and Department of Psychology, The University of South Dakota
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  • Marijo Tamburrino

    1. University of Toledo
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo
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Abstract

The present study used factor mixture modeling to explore empirically defined subgroups of psychological trauma victims based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and latent class analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We sampled 310 medical patients with a history of trauma exposure. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the 4-factor emotional numbing PTSD model yielded the best model fit. Using latent factor means derived from this model and the 4-factor dysphoria PTSD model (indexing severity on PTSD factors), 3 latent classes of participants were identified using factor mixture modeling. The 3-class model fit the data very well and was validated against external measures of anxiety and rumination.

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