This research was supported by grants R49/CE001021 from the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control and T32/HS013835 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Services.
Association between posttraumatic stress, depression, and functional impairments in adolescents 24 months after traumatic brain injury†
Article first published online: 21 JUN 2012
Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies
Journal of Traumatic Stress
Volume 25, Issue 3, pages 264–271, June 2012
How to Cite
O'Connor, S. S., Zatzick, D. F., Wang, J., Temkin, N., Koepsell, T. D., Jaffe, K. M., Durbin, D., Vavilala, M. S., Dorsch, A. and Rivara, F. P. (2012), Association between posttraumatic stress, depression, and functional impairments in adolescents 24 months after traumatic brain injury. J. Traum. Stress, 25: 264–271. doi: 10.1002/jts.21704
- Issue published online: 21 JUN 2012
- Article first published online: 21 JUN 2012
The degree to which postinjury posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depressive symptoms in adolescents are associated with cognitive and functional impairments at 12 and 24 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet known. The current study used a prospective cohort design, with baseline assessment and 3-, 12-, and 24-month followup, and recruited a cohort of 228 adolescents ages 14–17 years who sustained either a TBI (n = 189) or an isolated arm injury (n = 39). Linear mixed-effects regression was used to assess differences in depressive and PTSD symptoms between TBI and arm-injured patients and to assess the association between 3-month PTSD and depressive symptoms and cognitive and functional outcomes. Results indicated that patients who sustained a mild TBI without intracranial hemorrhage reported significantly worse PTSD (Hedges g = 0.49, p = .01; Model R2 = .38) symptoms across time as compared to the arm injured control group. Greater levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with poorer school (η2 = .07, p = .03; Model R2 = .36) and physical (η2 = .11, p = .01; Model R2 = .23) functioning, whereas greater depressive symptoms were associated with poorer school (η2 = .06, p = .05; Model R2 = .39) functioning.