Morale as a Moderator of the Combat Exposure-PTSD Symptom Relationship


  • We thank MAJ Dennis McGurk, Angela Salvi, Rachel Eckford, Dr. Charles Hoge, MAJ Oscar Cabrera, Dr. Kathleen Wright, SFC Shawn Abrahamson, SGT Lisa Williams, SPC Matthew McGinnis, Allison Whitt, Paul Kim, Robert Klocko, Steven Terry, Lance Rahey and Dr. James Pennebaker.

  • The findings described in this article were collected under a Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) Protocol. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policy or position of the U.S. Army Medical Command or the Department of Defense.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Thomas W. Britt, Department of Psychology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634. E-mail:


We examined morale as a moderator of the relationship between combat exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a longitudinal study of U.S. soldiers who had participated in a deployment to Iraq. Soldiers (N = 636) completed assessments at 4 (Time 1) and 10 (Time 2) months following their combat deployment. Combat exposure (both breadth and perceived stressfulness), morale, and PTSD symptoms were assessed at Time 1, and PTSD symptoms were assessed again at Time 2. Results of multivariate multiple regressions revealed that morale at Time 1 interacted with both the breadth and stressfulness of combat exposure to predict PTSD symptoms at both Time 1 and Time 2, even when partialling out the effect of unit support. The slope of the given combat exposure and PTSD symptoms relationship was weaker when reports of morale were higher (with the effect size of the interaction ranging from .01 to .04). The results suggest that morale may buffer soldiers from the negative consequences of combat stressors.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:士氣在創傷後壓力症(面對戰鬥類別) 症狀關係中的中介作用

撮要:本縱向研究對象為曾派駐伊拉克的美國士兵(N = 636),他們分別在派駐後四個月(時間1)和10個月(時間2)完成一系列評估,而本文將闡述士氣在創傷後壓力症(面對戰鬥類別)症狀關係中的中介作用。


标题:士气在创伤后压力症(面对战斗类别) 症状关系中的中介作用

撮要:本纵向研究对象为曾派驻伊拉克的美国士兵(N = 636),他们分别在派驻后四个月(时间1)和10个月(时间2)完成一系列评估,而本文将阐述士气在创伤后压力症(面对战斗类别)症状关系中的中介作用。