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The Associations Between Coping Self-Efficacy and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms 10 Years Postdisaster: Differences Between Men and Women


  • We gratefully thank all affected residents who participated in our study. The first three waves were conducted on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. The fourth wave was made possible by a special grant of the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment for innovative research projects. This article is part of a large research project on coping self-efficacy, granted by the Victim Support Fund (Fonds Slachtofferhulp), The Netherlands.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Mark W.G. Bosmans, Intervict, Tilburg University, Tilburg, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE, The Netherlands. E-mail:


The mediating role of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions between disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) in the intermediate term (4 years postevent) and PSS in the long term (10 years postevent) were examined. Participants were 514 adult Dutch native residents affected by the Enschede fireworks disaster. The disaster (May, 2000) was caused by a massive explosion in a fireworks storage facility that destroyed a residential area. Multiple regression analysis and path analysis were used to examine the mediating role of CSE and whether the mediating role was the same for men and women. Age, education, disaster exposure, home destruction, optimism, and stressful life events were also taken into account. Regression analysis showed that the former variables were not associated with PSS at 10 years postevent, in contrast to PSS at 4 years, and were therefore omitted from the path analyses. CSE assessed at 10 years postdisaster partially mediated the relationship between PSS at 4 and PSS at 10 years postdisaster. Post hoc multigroup analysis showed that this effect was significantly stronger for men, whereas the association between PSS at 4 and 10 years postevent was stronger for women. PSS at 10 years postevent were better predicted among men (explained variance 59.5% vs 50.8%).

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撮要:本文檢視孩童喪親後HPA軸功能(包括皮質醇睡醒反應;CAR) 與心理困擾、應對、和另一尚存家長的悲傷反應之間的關係。樣本包括38名孩童(20名女童曾在過去6個月有家長離世)和28名尚存的孩童家長(23名女性),他們會接受自我答問工具和半結構面談,而面談包括討論孩童對喪親的想法及感受,面談後連續三日,受訪者會提供3個在家唾液樣本(睡醒時,30分鐘後和黃昏時)。結果顯示孩童第1天CAR減退與更多焦慮症狀(r= -.45) 、 抑鬱症狀(r= -.40) 、 創傷後壓力症狀(r= -.45) 、不適應哀悼症狀(r= -.43) 和迴避性應對水平(r= -.53)有顯著關連。家長的更高不適應哀悼水平(r= -.47) 亦與孩童第1天CAR減退有關連。這些數據突出了減弱的CAR可能是累積穩態負荷和(又或)情緒上刺激的事件(與死者相關的討論),及在家庭中相關的後續處理(或缺少處理)而導致的。這些可能對喪親兒童(已經歷高度心理困擾、迴避應對和家長的不適應哀悼)來說已是特別壓力。


撮要:本文检视孩童丧亲后HPA轴功能(包括皮质醇睡醒反应;CAR) 与心理困扰、应对、和另一尚存家长的悲伤反应之间的关系。样本包括38名孩童(20名女童曾在过去6个月有家长离世)和28名尚存的孩童家长(23名女性),他们会接受自我答问工具和半结构面谈,而面谈包括讨论孩童对丧亲的想法及感受,面谈后连续三日,受访者会提供3个在家唾液样本(睡醒时,30分钟后和黄昏时)。结果显示孩童第1天CAR减退与更多焦虑症状(r= -.45) 、 抑郁症状(r= -.40) 、 创伤后压力症状(r= -.45) 、不适应哀悼症状(r= -.43) 和回避性应对水平(r= -.53)有显著关连。家长的更高不适应哀悼水平(r= -.47) 亦与孩童第1天CAR减退有关连。这些数据突出了减弱的CAR可能是累积稳态负荷和(又或)情绪上刺激的事件(与死者相关的讨论),及在家庭中相关的后续处理(或缺少处理)而导致的。这些可能对丧亲儿童(已经历高度心理困扰、回避应对和家长的不适应哀悼)来说已是特别压力。