What Is the Typical Response to Sexual Assault? Reply to Bonanno (2013)


Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Maria Steenkamp, Boston Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 150 South Huntington Avenue 13B-73, Boston, MA 02130. E-mail: maria.steenkamp2@va.gov


We respond to Bonanno's (2013) comment on our longitudinal evaluation of sexual assault survivors. Bonanno posits that minor disruption in functioning is the modal response to any stressor or trauma, yet most women we studied had marked initial symptoms in the immediate months following assault, which gradually improved over time. We argue that sexual violence is one example of intentional and malicious victimization, which differs from other experiences studied by Bonanno, such as spinal cord injury. Our study also differed from most previous studies in that it specifically examined the acute reactions period, which is the only period that can distinguish between resilience and recovery: Both trajectories ultimately involve good adaptation, but are distinguished by the degree of initial postevent disruption. We address Bonanno's contention that our results should be dismissed on methodological and statistical grounds. Our findings suggest that prior research about the frequency of resilience may in part be confounded by the degree and type of stress exposure.

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撮要:我們回應Bonanno(2013)對縱向性侵犯倖存者研究的批評。Bonanno認為對任何壓力或創傷的模態反應是輕度功能干擾,而我們研究中的女性在侵犯後即時有顯着早期症狀,但隨時日而減輕。我們認為性罪行是一種蓄意和惡意的侵害行徑,與Bonanno之研究對象(如脊髓損害) 根本不同。本研究亦與前人大多研究不同,我們專注檢視急性反應,此乃分辨復原力和康復的唯一時機,而兩者軌跡最後包括良好適應,但又相異的最初事件後紊亂量度。我們關注Bonanno的意圖:即本文數據在考慮研究方法和統計層面後應予否定。本研究發現往昔關於復原力密度研究可能有部份因應壓力經歷的種類和量度而影響結果。


撮要:我们响应Bonanno(2013)对纵向性侵犯幸存者研究的批评。Bonanno认为对任何压力或创伤的模态反应是轻度功能干扰,而我们研究中的女性在侵犯后实时有显着早期症状,但随时日而减轻。我们认为性罪行是一种蓄意和恶意的侵害行径,与Bonanno之研究对象(如脊髓损害) 根本不同。本研究亦与前人大多研究不同,我们专注检视急性反应,此乃分辨复原力和康复的唯一时机,而两者轨迹最后包括良好适应,但又相异的最初事件后紊乱量度。我们关注Bonanno的意图:即本文数据在考虑研究方法和统计层面后应予否定。本研究发现往昔关于复原力密度研究可能有部份因应压力经历的种类和量度而影响结果。