PTSD Symptomatology and Hazardous Drinking as Risk Factors for Sexual Assault Revictimization: Examination in European American and African American Women

Authors


  • Funding was provided by grant NIAAA #13455 to Sarah E. Ullman. We gratefully acknowledge Henrietta Filipas, Stephanie Townsend, Laura Starzynski, and Kelly Kinnison for assistance with data collection.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Heather Littleton, Department of Psychology, 104 Rawl Building, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858-4353. E-mail: littletonh@ecu.edu

Abstract

A sexual victimization history is a risk factor for experiencing further sexual victimization. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been posited as predictors of revictimization through multiple pathways, including through their association with risk recognition and alcohol use. There is, however, limited longitudinal research examining these revictimization risk factors, including the extent to which they predict risk for forcible rape (rape involving threat or force) and incapacitated rape (rape of a victim incapacitated by substances). Additionally, there is no research evaluating ethnic differences in revictimization risk pathways. The current study examined PTSD symptoms and hazardous drinking as predictors of new forcible and incapacitated rape over 1 year in a community sample of European American (n = 217) and African American (n = 272) sexual assault victims (M = 34 years; 84% high school education or above). We hypothesized that PTSD symptoms would predict both types of revictimization and hazardous drinking would predict incapacitated rape. Results supported that PTSD symptoms predicted both types of rape (forcible rape, β = .34; incapacitated rape, β = .20), and hazardous drinking predicted incapacitated rape (β = .24). PTSD symptoms predicted hazardous drinking in African American women only (β = .20). Thus, there is a need to evaluate risk pathways for specific types of victimization among diverse samples.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:檢視女性歐裔美國人和非洲裔美國人的PTSD症狀學和危險醉酒作為再受性侵害風險因素的情況。

撮要:再被性侵害的風險因素包括性侵害史。創傷後壓力症(PTSD)透過多種渠道預測再侵害,包括透過相關的風險評估能力和飲酒。但現存僅有少量縱向研究檢討再侵害風險因素,包括暴力強姦(即使用恐嚇或暴力的強姦)和無抵抗力強姦(即受害人因藥物影響而無力抵抗)風險的預測幅度。目前亦未有研究評估再受害風險路徑的種族差異。本研究檢視社區樣本(包括受性侵犯的歐裔美國人(n=217)和非洲裔美國人(n=272)(M=34歲;84%中學程度或以上))在一年內PTSD症狀和危險醉酒作為再被暴力強姦和無抵抗力強姦的風險因素的情況。假設是:PTSD症狀能預測上述的兩種再受性侵害,而危險醉酒則預知無抵抗力強姦。結果是PTSD症狀能預知兩種上述強姦(暴力強姦,β=.34,無抵抗力強姦,β=.20),而危險醉酒預測無抵抗力強姦(β=.24)。PTSD症狀預知非洲裔美國女人的危險醉酒(β=.20)。所以,我們必須在廣泛樣本中評估特定侵害類別的風險路徑。

标题:检视女性欧裔美国人和非洲裔美国人的PTSD症状学和危险醉酒作为再受性侵害风险因素的情况。

撮要:再被性侵害的风险因素包括性侵害史。创伤后压力症(PTSD)透过多种渠道预测再侵害,包括透过相关的风险评估能力和饮酒。但现存仅有少量纵向研究检讨再侵害风险因素,包括暴力强奸(即使用恐吓或暴力的强奸)和无抵抗力强奸(即受害人因药物影响而无力抵抗)风险的预测幅度。目前亦未有研究评估再受害风险路径的种族差异。本研究检视小区样本(包括受性侵犯的欧裔美国人(n=217)和非洲裔美国人(n=272)(M=34岁;84%中学程度或以上))在一年内PTSD症状和危险醉酒作为再被暴力强奸和无抵抗力强奸的风险因素的情况。假设是:PTSD症状能预测上述的两种再受性侵害,而危险醉酒则预知无抵抗力强奸。结果是PTSD症状能预知两种上述强奸(暴力强奸,β=.34,无抵抗力强奸,β=.20),而危险醉酒预测无抵抗力强奸(β=.24)。PTSD症状预知非洲裔美国女人的危险醉酒(β=.20)。所以,我们必须在广泛样本中评估特定侵害类别的风险路径。

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