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Perievent Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder After Mass Trauma: A 12-Month Longitudinal Study


  • This investigation has been partly carried out under the financial sponsorship of the research project “Anxiety Crises: Prevalence and Vulnerability Factors” funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation MICINN (ref. PSI 2008-05332).

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Cristina Mae Wood, Dpto. Psicología Básica II (Procesos Cognitivos), Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid, Spain. E-mail:


Panic attacks frequently lead to psychopathological disorders, including panic disorder. Even though panic disorder is a highly comorbid and disabling mental health problem associated with stressful life or traumatic events, perievent panic attacks and their association with panic disorder have hardly been investigated as a central topic after mass trauma. Using data from a longitudinal population-based assessment of Madrid residents after the March 11, 2004 train bombings (N = 1,589), with assessments conducted 1, 6, and 12 months after the attacks, the rate of perievent panic attacks was 10.9%. Level of exposure, previous life stressors, and negative emotionality were associated with perievent panic attacks (β = .12, .15, and .10, respectively), which in turn mediated the relationship between exposure to the terrorist event and panic disorder in the following year. Previous life stressors (β = .15) and low social support (β = −.14) were directly associated with panic disorder during the subsequent year. The most vulnerable individuals who experienced perievent panic attacks were 3.7 times, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.1, 6.4], more likely to suffer from panic disorder in the following year. Results suggest that early identification of perievent panic attacks following mass trauma may be helpful for reducing panic disorder.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS


撮要:恐慌突襲常引致精神病症,如恐慌症。儘管恐慌症有高度共病性及令人喪失功能,又與壓力事件或創傷相關,圍事件恐慌突襲與恐慌症的關係卻極少在大型創傷後作出詳細研究。2004年3月11日西班牙爆炸事件後縱向馬德里人口評估(N=1,589) 研究,分別在事件後1個月、6個月和12個月評估而得出圍事件恐慌突襲比率為10.9%。事件曝露程度、以往生活壓力源、和負面情緒性質都與圍事件恐慌突襲有關連(分別為β=.12,.15和.10),而這些亦促成恐怖份子事件和一年後恐慌症發生之間的相互關係。以往生活壓力源(β=.15)和低社會支援(β=-.14)都與接續一年後恐慌症有直接關連。經歷圍事件恐慌突襲的最脆弱人士在一年後有3.7倍(95% CI=﹝2.1, 6.4﹞)機會患上恐慌症。結果是:在大型創傷後及早發現圍事件恐慌突襲可能有助減少恐慌症。


撮要:恐慌突袭常引致精神病症,如恐慌症。尽管恐慌症有高度共病性及令人丧失功能,又与压力事件或创伤相关,围事件恐慌突袭与恐慌症的关系却极少在大型创伤后作出详细研究。2004年3月11日西班牙爆炸事件后纵向马德里人口评估(N=1,589) 研究,分别在事件后1个月、6个月和12个月评估而得出围事件恐慌突袭比率为10.9%。事件曝露程度、以往生活压力源、和负面情绪性质都与围事件恐慌突袭有关连(分别为β=.12,.15和.10),而这些亦促成恐怖份子事件和一年后恐慌症发生之间的相互关系。以往生活压力源(β=.15)和低社会支持(β=-.14)都与接续一年后恐慌症有直接关连。经历围事件恐慌突袭的最脆弱人士在一年后有3.7倍(95% CI=﹝2.1, 6.4﹞)机会患上恐慌症。结果是:在大型创伤后及早发现围事件恐慌突袭可能有助减少恐慌症。