Michael D. Scur is now at Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
The Co-Occurrence of Major Depressive Disorder Among Individuals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis
Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013
Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies
Journal of Traumatic Stress
Volume 26, Issue 3, pages 299–309, June 2013
How to Cite
Rytwinski, N. K., Scur, M. D., Feeny, N. C. and Youngstrom, E. A. (2013), The Co-Occurrence of Major Depressive Disorder Among Individuals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis. J. Traum. Stress, 26: 299–309. doi: 10.1002/jts.21814
We would like to thank Jeanne Duax for her help with a previous draft of this manuscript, Elle Brennan for her help evaluating the methodological quality of studies, and Rekha Iyer, Sarah Peghjrsaud, Krina Adhikari, and Brittany Imholte for their help locating the articles that were included in this meta-analysis.
- Issue online: 4 JUN 2013
- Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013
Although co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with greater distress, impairment, and health care utilization than PTSD alone, the magnitude of this problem is uncertain. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the mean prevalence of current MDD co-occurrence among individuals with PTSD and examine potential moderating variables (U.S. nationality, gender, trauma type, military service, referral type) that may influence the rate of PTSD and MDD co-occurrence. Meta-analytic findings (k = 57 studies; N = 6,670 participants) revealed that 52%, 95% confidence interval [48, 56], of individuals with current PTSD had co-occurring MDD. When outliers were removed, military samples and interpersonal traumas demonstrated higher rates of MDD among individuals with PTSD than civilian samples and natural disasters, respectively. U.S. nationality, gender, and referral type did not significantly account for differences in co-occurrence rates. This high co-occurrence rate accentuates the importance of routinely assessing MDD among individuals with PTSD and continuing research into the association between these disorders.
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