This research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grants MH071537 and MH78100. Data analysis and writing were also partially funded by a George W. Woodruff Fellowship from Emory University. The authors would like to thank Nancy Bliwise, PhD, and Elizabeth Wilson, PhD, for their help in early drafts of this manuscript.
Attachment, Social Cognition, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in a Traumatized, Urban Population: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Object Relations
Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013
Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies
Journal of Traumatic Stress
Volume 26, Issue 3, pages 361–368, June 2013
How to Cite
Ortigo, K. M., Westen, D., DeFife, J. A. and Bradley, B. (2013), Attachment, Social Cognition, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in a Traumatized, Urban Population: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Object Relations. J. Traum. Stress, 26: 361–368. doi: 10.1002/jts.21815
- Issue online: 4 JUN 2013
- Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Grant Numbers: MH071537, MH78100
Research has linked multiple risk and resiliency factors to developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One potentially important construct for understanding connections between trauma and PTSD is attachment. Although relationships between attachment and risk for PTSD have been described theoretically, limited research has addressed these relationships empirically. Furthermore, aspects of object relations overlap with attachment and PTSD, but have not been adequately incorporated in empirical research. One proposed pathway between attachment and PTSD involves the mediating role of object relations, particularly views of self and others. Present data were from a larger study investigating environmental and genetic risk factors for PTSD in an impoverished, primarily African American sample seeking care at a public urban hospital. Correlations indicated that adult attachment (with the exception of dismissing) and object relations relate to childhood traumas, (|r|s = .19–.29), adult traumas (|r|s = .14–.20), and self-reported PTSD symptoms (|r|s = .20–.36). Analyses also found support for mediational roles of object relations in relationships between attachment and PTSD symptoms (Model R2 range = .136–.160). These data have theoretical, clinical, and research implications for understanding how particular aspects of attachment, specifically its effects on object relations, may protect against or predispose one to develop PTSD.
Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS
撮要：以往創傷後壓力症(PTSD)研究找出多種風險因素和復原力因素。依附是創傷和PTSD中間一個重要連結；在理論層面方面，依附與PTSD風險的關係有頗多論述，但實證研究則少有提及，亦未有探究「對象關係」與依附及PTSD 之間的相叠情況。一個依附及PTSD之間的建議路徑是由「對象關係」作為中介調停，特別是「自我」和「他人」的觀感。本研究是從一大型研究(一羣尋求公立市區醫院治理的貧窮非洲裔美國人樣本中檢視PTSD的環境與遺傳風險因素的研究)中抽取數據分析。分析顯示：成年依附(除去「摒除」)和「對象關係」都與兒時創傷(∣r∣'s = .19–.29)，成年創傷(∣r∣'s = .14–.20)和自評PTSD症狀(∣r∣'s = .20–.36)有關連。分析亦支持在依附和PTSD症狀(模型R2區間= .136–.160) 之間，「對象關係」是中介角色。這些數據在理論、臨床和研究方面，有助了解依附(特別是「對象關係」的影響) 的某些角度可能會保護或令人容易患上PTSD。
撮要：以往创伤后压力症(PTSD)研究找出多种风险因素和复原力因素。依附是创伤和PTSD中间一个重要连结；在理论层面方面，依附与PTSD风险的关系有颇多论述，但实证研究则少有提及，亦未有探究「对象关系」与依附及PTSD 之间的相叠情况。一个依附及PTSD之间的建议路径是由「对象关系」作为中介调停，特别是「自我」和「他人」的观感。本研究是从一大型研究(一羣寻求公立市区医院治理的贫穷非洲裔美国人样本中检视PTSD的环境与遗传风险因素的研究)中抽取数据分析。分析显示：成年依附(除去「摒除」)和「对象关系」都与儿时创伤(∣r∣'s = .19–.29)，成年创伤(∣r∣'s = .14–.20)和自评PTSD症状(∣r∣'s = .20–.36)有关连。分析亦支持在依附和PTSD症状(模型R2区间= .136–.160) 之间，「对象关系」是中介角色。这些数据在理论、临床和研究方面，有助了解依附(特别是「对象关系」的影响) 的某些角度可能会保护或令人容易患上PTSD。