Emotion Regulation Difficulties Mediate Associations Between Betrayal Trauma and Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Anxiety

Authors


  • We are grateful to Martha Shumway for her comments on a previous draft of this manuscript, and to Carolyn Allard, Lisa DeMarni Cromer, Anne DePrince, Christina Gamache Martin, and Melissa Platt for their input on these topics.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Rachel Goldsmith, Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10029. E-mail: Rachel.Goldsmith@mssm.edu

Abstract

Emotion regulation difficulties following trauma exposure have received increasing attention among researchers and clinicians. Previous work highlights the role of emotion regulation difficulties in multiple forms of psychological distress and identifies emotion regulation capacities as especially compromised among survivors of betrayal trauma: physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment perpetrated by someone to whom the victim is close, such as a parent or partner. It is unknown, however, whether links between emotion regulation difficulties and psychological symptoms differ following exposure to betrayal trauma as compared with other trauma types. In the present study, 593 male and female university undergraduates completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004), the Brief Betrayal Trauma Scale (Goldberg & Freyd, 2006), the Impact of Event Scale (Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist (Elliott & Briere, 1992). A path analytic model demonstrated that betrayal trauma indirectly impacted symptoms of intrusion (β = .11), avoidance (β = .13), depression (β = .17), and anxiety (β = .14) via emotion regulation difficulties, an effect consistent with mediation. Emotion regulation difficulties did not mediate the relationship between other trauma exposure and psychological symptoms. Results may inform treatment-matching efforts, and suggest that emotion regulation difficulties may constitute a key therapeutic target following betrayal trauma.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題 : 「情緒調節障礙」居中調節 ⌈背叛創傷⌋ 和創傷後壓力症狀、抑鬱症狀及焦慮症狀之間的關係

撮要 : 創傷經歷後的「情緒調節障礙」在研究或臨床服務中漸見重視。前人研究點出在多種心理困擾中「情緒調節障礙」擔任重要角色,亦發現「背叛創傷」倖存者中情緒調節能力受損(即被有親密關係的加害者,如父母或伴侶,施行身體、性或心理虐待)。但我們未有資料關於這類「背叛創傷」經歷與其他創傷是否帶來不一樣的「情緒調節障礙」與心理症狀連結。本研究樣本是593名男女大學生,他們完成以下評估: 情緒調節障礙量表(Gratz & Roemer, 2004),簡短背叛創傷量表(Goldberg & Freyd , 2006),事件影響量表(Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979),和創傷症狀清單(Elliott & Briere, 1992)。路徑分析模型剖析「背叛創傷」透過「情緒調節障礙」間接影響「侵入」(β=.11)、迴避症狀(β=.13)、抑鬱症狀(β=.17)和焦慮症狀(β=.14),而「情緒調節障礙」則切合其中介角色,但其中介角色未在其他創傷經歷和心理症狀之間出現。本研究結果有助找尋合適配對治療,和指出「情緒調節障礙」可能是「背叛創傷」的重要治療目標。

标题 : 「情绪调节障碍」居中调节 ⌈背叛创伤⌋ 和创伤后压力症状、抑郁症状及焦虑症状之间的关系

撮要 : 创伤经历后的「情绪调节障碍」在研究或临床服务中渐见重视。前人研究点出在多种心理困扰中「情绪调节障碍」担任重要角色,亦发现「背叛创伤」幸存者中情绪调节能力受损(即被有亲密关系的加害者,如父母或伴侣,施行身体、性或心理虐待)。但我们未有数据关于这类「背叛创伤」经历与其他创伤是否带来不一样的「情绪调节障碍」与心理症状连结。本研究样本是593名男女大学生,他们完成以下评估: 情绪调节障碍量表(Gratz & Roemer, 2004),简短背叛创伤量表(Goldberg & Freyd , 2006),事件影响量表(Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979),和创伤症状清单(Elliott & Briere, 1992)。路径分析模型剖析「背叛创伤」透过「情绪调节障碍」间接影响「侵入」(β=.11)、回避症状(β=.13)、抑郁症状(β=.17)和焦虑症状(β=.14),而「情绪调节障碍」则切合其中介角色,但其中介角色未在其他创伤经历和心理症状之间出现。本研究结果有助找寻合适配对治疗,和指出「情绪调节障碍」可能是「背叛创伤」的重要治疗目标。

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