Gender Differences in Subjective Sleep After Trauma and the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study

Authors


  • Ihori Kobayashi is now at the Department of Psychiatry, Howard University, Washington, DC.

  • This research was supported by NIMH grants R34 MH71201 and R34 MH 73014 to Douglas Delahanty.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ihori Kobayashi, 530 College St. NW, Washington, DC 20060. E-mail: ihori.kobayashi@howard.edu

Abstract

Women are at higher risk than men for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following certain types of trauma such as accidents and assaults. Sleep disturbances have been implicated in the development of PTSD. Although gender differences in objective sleep soon after trauma have been found in a prior polysomnographic study, gender differences in subjective sleep soon after trauma and their associations to the development of PTSD have not been examined. This pilot study prospectively examined whether gender moderated the relationship between subjective sleep soon after trauma and PTSD symptom development. Injury patients (17 women, 28 men) completed a sleep questionnaire and a 1-week sleep diary 2 weeks after their injuries, and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale at 7-weeks postinjury. Results showed that women reported greater frequency of nightmares and disruptive nocturnal behaviors (e.g., hot flashes, memories/nightmares about trauma) following the trauma and more severe PTSD symptoms at 7 weeks. Further, gender moderated the relationship between sleep-onset latency and PTSD symptom severity, such that longer sleep-onset latency predicted more severe PTSD symptoms in men, but less severe PTSD symptoms in women. These findings suggest that gender-specific mechanisms may underlie the relationship between sleep impairment and the development of PTSD.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題 :關於創傷後主觀睡眠的兩性差異與創傷後壓力症的先導研究

撮要 :在某些創傷(如意外和襲擊)後,女性比男性更容易患上創傷後壓力症(PTSD),而PTSD的發病可能與睡眠問題有關。 雖然曾有睡眠多導儀研究指出創傷後即時客觀睡眠有兩性差異,但是未有研究關於創傷後即時主觀睡眠的兩性差異及與PTSD的關係。本先導研究前膽性檢視創傷後即時主觀睡眠與PTSD之間是否由性別作制約角色。受傷病人(17名女士及28名男士)在傷後兩週完成睡眠問卷和睡眠一週日記,而在傷害後七週完成醫療人員評估PTSD量表。結果指出女士有更頻密的創傷後惡夢和擾亂性夜間行為(如潮熱,與創傷相關的記憶/惡夢),和創傷後七週有更重的PTSD症狀。再者,入睡潛伏期和PTSD症狀幅度之間有性別作制約角色,如在男性中較長入睡潛伏期預測更重PTSD症狀,但在女性中則PTSD症狀則較輕。上述結論建議性別專屬機制可能突出睡眠失調和PTSD病發之間的關係。

标题 :关于创伤后主观睡眠的两性差异与创伤后压力症的先导研究

撮要 :在某些创伤(如意外和袭击)后,女性比男性更容易患上创伤后压力症(PTSD),而PTSD的发病可能与睡眠问题有关。 虽然曾有睡眠多导仪研究指出创伤后实时客观睡眠有两性差异,但是未有研究关于创伤后实时主观睡眠的两性差异及与PTSD的关系。本先导研究前胆性检视创伤后实时主观睡眠与PTSD之间是否由性别作制约角色。受伤病人(17名女士及28名男士)在伤后两周完成睡眠问卷和睡眠一周日记,而在伤害后七周完成医疗人员评估PTSD量表。结果指出女士有更频密的创伤后恶梦和扰乱性夜间行为(如潮热,与创伤相关的记忆/恶梦),和创伤后七周有更重的PTSD症状。再者,入睡潜伏期和PTSD症状幅度之间有性别作制约角色,如在男性中较长入睡潜伏期预测更重PTSD症状,但在女性中则PTSD症状则较轻。上述结论建议性别专属机制可能突出睡眠失调和PTSD病发之间的关系。

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