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Is the Holocaust Implicated in Posttraumatic Growth in Second-Generation Holocaust Survivors? A Prospective Study

Authors


  • Sharon Dekel was funded by the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation. She was awarded the Narsad Young Investigator Grant sponsored by Dr. Dylan Tauber.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sharon Dekel, PTSD Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital-East, 120 Second Avenue, Charlestown, MA 02129. E-mail: dekel.sharon@gmail.com

Abstract

With the growing interest in posttraumatic growth (PTG), and the ongoing debate on the implications of transgenerational transmission of trauma, this longitudinal study examined PTG among Holocaust survivor offspring following their own exposure to trauma. Using self-report questionnaires, we assessed PTG over time in middle aged (age: M = 53 years) Israeli male combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War whose parents were (n = 43) and were not (n = 156) second-generation survivors of the Nazi Holocaust at 2 time points: 30 and 35 years following the war (in 2003 and 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and trauma exposure were also assessed in 1991. We hypothesized that second-generation survivors would report more PTG than controls. However, repeated measures design revealed that the second-generation veterans reported less PTG than veterans who were not second generation, which was evident in the PTG domains of relations to others, personal strength, and appreciation of life. Our findings suggest that transmission of trauma from one generation to the next is possibly implicated in the offspring's propensity for growth following subsequent trauma. Future research is warranted to examine the link between transmission of trauma and positive outcomes following trauma.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:納粹大屠殺生還者的第二代的PTG與大屠殺的關係:一個前瞻性研究

撮要:人們對創傷後成長(PTG)的興趣及創傷跨代傳遞的含義有持續辯論,所以本縱向性研究檢視納粹人屠殺生還者後代在他們自身創傷經歷後的PTG。

我們選取了從1973年猶太贖罪日戰事退役的以色列中年男兵(歲數:M=53歲),他們父母有的是納粹大屠殺的生還者第二代(n=43),但也有的不是(n=156)。在戰事後30和35年(即2003和2008年)完成自我報告問卷,而1991年時亦評估了創傷後壓力症(PTSD)症狀和創傷經歷。我們假設生還者第二代對比對照組有更多PTG,但重覆評估的設計顯示第二代的退役兵有更少的PTG,特別在PTG區域(與他人關係,個人力量和對生命的欣賞)。研究結論提出:創傷從一代傳達到下一代,可能影響後代在往後創傷經歷的成長傾向。未來研究需要檢視創傷傳遞和創傷後正面成果之間的關係。

标题:纳粹大屠杀生还者的第二代的PTG与大屠杀的关系:一个前瞻性研究

撮要:人们对创伤后成长(PTG)的兴趣及创伤跨代传递的含义有持续辩论,所以本纵向性研究检视纳粹人屠杀生还者后代在他们自身创伤经历后的PTG。

我们选取了从1973年犹太赎罪日战事退役的以色列中年男兵(岁数:M=53岁),他们父母有的是纳粹大屠杀的生还者第二代(n=43),但也有的不是(n=156)。在战事后30和35年(即2003和2008年)完成自我报告问卷,而1991年时亦评估了创伤后压力症(PTSD)症状和创伤经历。我们假设生还者第二代对比对照组有更多PTG,但重复评估的设计显示第二代的退役兵有更少的PTG,特别在PTG区域(与他人关系,个人力量和对生命的欣赏)。研究结论提出:创伤从一代传达到下一代,可能影响后代在往后创伤经历的成长倾向。未来研究需要检视创伤传递和创伤后正面成果之间的关系。

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