The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society such as Norway would affect an adolescent population. This study examines posttraumatic stress reactions and changes in worldview in relationship to risk factors among 10,220 high school students using data from the ung@hordaland survey. One out of 5 respondents knew someone directly exposed, 55.7% experienced the events to some extent as threatening to their own or their close ones’ lives, and 79.9% reported their worldview to be changed. For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM IV criteria, 0.8% reported substantial symptoms of reexperiencing (Criterion B), 4.9% of avoidance (Criterion C), and 1.1% of hyperarousal (Criterion D). Greater personal proximity to the events, higher levels of perceived life threat, and being a female or an immigrant predicted higher levels of PTSD symptom distress. Results indicate that the terror events made a deep impression on Norwegian adolescents, but without causing markedly elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology in the general young population.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題: 挪威高中生面對2011年7月奧斯陸恐怖襲擊的創傷後反應

撮要: 2011年7月22日奧斯陸恐怖襲擊事件是挪威國難。以往對恐怖襲擊和槍擊群眾事件的研究都指出直接受害者和平民大眾都有更多創傷後不適。但較少研究揭示在安全國家(如挪威)內青少年如何被這類極端事件所影響。本研究檢視10220名高中生(利用ung@hordaland調查的數據)的風險因素與創傷後壓力反應及世界觀改變的關係,其中五分之一認識直接經歷事件人士,55.7%感到事件多少對自我或至愛生命有威脅,79.9%則改變了個人世界觀。從創傷後壓力症(PTSD)診斷準則來看,0.8%有相當程度的再經歷症狀(準則B),4.9%有迴避症狀(準則C),和1.1%過激反應(準則D)。對事件有更高個人緊貼度,較易感受生命威脅,女性和移民都預測更多PTSD症狀困擾。結果指出恐怖襲擊事件給挪威青少年留下烙印,但並未在一般年輕人中誘發顯着PTSD症狀。

标题: 挪威高中生面对2011年7月奥斯陆恐怖袭击的创伤后反应

撮要: 2011年7月22日奥斯陆恐怖袭击事件是挪威国难。以往对恐怖袭击和枪击群众事件的研究都指出直接受害者和平民大众都有更多创伤后不适。但较少研究揭露在安全国家(如挪威)内青少年如何被这类极端事件所影响。本研究检视10220名高中生(利用ung@hordaland调查的数据)的风险因素与创伤后压力反应及世界观改变的关系,其中五分之一认识直接经历事件人士,55.7%感到事件多少对自我或至爱生命有威胁,79.9%则改变了个人世界观。从创伤后压力症(PTSD)诊断准则来看,0.8%有相当程度的再经历症状(准则B),4.9%有回避症状(准则C),和1.1%过激反应(准则D)。对事件有更高个人紧贴度,较易感受生命威胁,女性和移民都预测更多PTSD症状困扰。结果指出恐怖袭击事件给挪威青少年留下烙印,但并未在一般年轻人中诱发显着PTSD症状。