The Bidirectional Dyadic Association Between Tendency to Forgive, Self-Esteem, Social Support, and PTSD Symptoms Among Terror-Attack Survivors and Their Spouses

Authors

  • Michael Weinberg

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
    • Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Michael Weinberg, School of Social Work, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel. E-mail: michaelweinberg10@gmail.com

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  • Michael Weinberg is currently at the School of Social Work, University of Haifa.

Abstract

This study examined the dyadic association of terror attack survivors’ and spouses’ internal resources, tendency to forgive (self, others, and situational forgiveness), self-esteem, and the external resource of social support, as associated with victims’ and spouses’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, using the actor–partner interdependence model. Based on lists by the One Family organization in Israel, 108 couples participated in the study. The study results demonstrate that in the dyad relationship, survivors’ tendency to forgive others and social support relate both to survivors’ decreased levels of PTSD symptom severity (β = −.20, p = .021; β = −.55 p < .001) and spouses’ decreased levels of PTSD symptom severity (β = −.21, p = .015; β = −.27, p = . 004), whereas spouses’ self-esteem relates to both spouses’ and survivors’ decreased levels of PTSD symptom severity (β = −.57, p < .001; β = −.14, p = .041). The findings underscore the role of the survivor–spouse unit by highlighting the dyad relationship of internal and external resources as associated with both survivors’ and spouses’ PTSD symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:恐怖襲擊生還者及其配偶的PTSD症狀與寬恕傾向、自尊心和社會支援之間的雙向二元關係。

撮要:本研究運用演員/伴侶互存模型(APIM)來研究恐怖襲擊生還者及配偶的創傷後壓力症(PTSD)症狀與他們內在資源、寬恕傾向(自身、他人和處境寬恕)、自尊心,和社會支援的外在資源之間的二元關係。以色列「壹家庭」機構名單的108對伴侶參與本研究。結果顯示在二元關係中,生還者的寬恕傾向及社會支援,與生還者(β = -.20,P = .021;β = -.55,P<.001)及其配偶(β = -.21,P = .015;β = -.27,P = .004)的PTSD症狀嚴重度下降有關連;而生還者和配偶的PTSD症狀嚴重度下跌則與配偶的自尊心有關連(β = -.57,p<.001;β = -.14,p = .041)。研究結果顯示二元(內在和外在資源)關係與生還者和配偶PTSD症狀互相關連,從而突出生還者/配偶單位角色的重要。本文亦有討論研究成果在理論和臨床方面的影響。

标题:恐怖袭击生还者及其伴侣的PTSD症状与宽恕倾向、自尊心和社会支持之间的双向二元关系。

撮要:本研究运用演员/伴侣互存模型(APIM)来研究恐怖袭击生还者及伴侣的创伤后压力症(PTSD)症状与他们内在资源、宽恕倾向(自身、他人和处境宽恕)、自尊心,和社会支持的外在资源之间的二元关系。以色列「壹家庭」机构名单的108对伴侣参与本研究。结果显示在二元关系中,生还者的宽恕倾向及社会支持,与生还者(β = -.20,P = .021;β = -.55,P<.001)及其伴侣(β = -.21,P = .015;β = -.27,P = .004)的PTSD症状严重度下降有关连;而生还者和伴侣的PTSD症状严重度下跌则与伴侣的自尊心有关连(β = -.57,p<.001;β = -.14,p = .041)。研究结果显示二元(内在和外在资源)关系与生还者和伴侣PTSD症状互相关连,从而突出生还者/伴侣单位角色的重要。本文亦有讨论研究成果在理论和临床方面的影响。

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