This research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (P60MH082598 and T32MH013043).
Immediate and Longer-Term Stressors and the Mental Health of Hurricane Ike Survivors
Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013
Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies
Journal of Traumatic Stress
Volume 26, Issue 6, pages 753–761, December 2013
How to Cite
Lowe, S. R., Tracy, M., Cerdá, M., Norris, F. H. and Galea, S. (2013), Immediate and Longer-Term Stressors and the Mental Health of Hurricane Ike Survivors. J. Traum. Stress, 26: 753–761. doi: 10.1002/jts.21872
- Issue published online: 16 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013
- National Institute of Mental Health. Grant Numbers: P60MH082598, T32MH013043
Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning, however. Additionally, studies have inadequately explored whether postdisaster psychological symptoms influence longer-term stressors. In the current study, we aimed to fill these gaps. Participants (N = 448) were from population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors and completed assessments 2–5 months (Wave 1), 5–9 months (Wave 2) and 14–18 months (Wave 3) postdisaster. Through path analysis, we found that immediate stressors, assessed at Wave 1, were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 stressors, which in turn were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with Wave 3 stressors, and Wave 1 depressive symptoms were positively associated with Wave 2 stressors. The findings suggest that policies and interventions can reduce the impact of disasters on mental health by preventing and alleviating both immediate and longer-term postdisaster stressors.
Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS
撮要：昔日研究指出災難中經歷更多壓力和即時後果(即時壓力) 會有更高風險經歷災難後長期壓力，長期壓力又塑造災難後心理功能。只有少量研究同時探索即時至長期壓力源的關連，和長期壓力源至心理功能的連結，亦未有研究充分探求災難後心理症狀有否影響長期壓力源。本研究意圖填補上述空白。從颶風艾克倖存者人口研究中選取樣本(N = 448)，而在風暴後2–5個月(浪1)、5–9個月(浪2)和14–18個月(浪3)進行評估。利用路徑分析，在浪1的即時壓力源與浪2及浪3壓力源呈正相連，然後再順序地與浪2和浪3創傷後壓力和抑鬱症狀呈正相連。浪2創傷後壓力症與浪3壓力源呈正相關，而浪1抑鬱症狀與浪2壓力源呈正關連。結果建議：預防和減輕即時和長期災難後壓力源的相關政策及介入服務能減少災難對精神健康的衝擊。
撮要：过往研究指出灾难中经历更多压力和即时后果(即时压力) 会有更高风险经历灾难后长期压力，长期压力又塑造灾难后心理功能。只有少量研究同时探索即时至长期压力源的关连，和长期压力源至心理功能的链接，亦未有研究充分探求灾难后心理症状有否影响长期压力源。本研究意图填补上述空白。从飓风艾克幸存者人口研究中选取样本(N = 448)，而在风暴后2–5个月(浪1)、5–9个月(浪2)和14–18个月(浪3)进行评估。利用路径分析，在浪1的即时压力源与浪2及浪3压力源呈正相连，然后再顺序地与浪2和浪3创伤后压力和抑郁症状呈正相连。浪2创伤后压力症与浪3压力源呈正相关，而浪1抑郁症状与浪2压力源呈正关连。结果建议：预防和减轻即时和长期灾难后压力源的相关政策及介入服务能减少灾难对精神健康的冲击。