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The Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ; Maercker & Mueller, 2004) is a measure of trauma survivors’ perceptions of social acknowledgment and disapproval from others, and these factors are shown to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among civilian trauma survivors. This study seeks to validate the structure of the SAQ among U.S. military veterans and test the hypothesis that family and general disapproval are associated with PTSD and depression among veterans. Participants were 198 U.S. veterans who experienced military trauma and completed an intake evaluation through a Veterans Affairs PTSD treatment program. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results supported a well-fitting 3-factor model for the SAQ that was similar to prior studies in capturing the constructs of social acknowledgment, general disapproval, and family disapproval. SEM results also showed that all 3 of the SAQ factors were associated with veterans’ depression (−.31, .22, and .39, respectively), whereas only general disapproval was related to veterans’ PTSD. This is the first study of which we are aware to investigate the factor structure of the SAQ in a veteran sample and to investigate the relationship between SAQ factors and trauma survivors’ depression. Results build upon prior findings by showing the importance of positive and negative social reactions to veterans’ traumatic experiences.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:尋求PTSD治療的退役軍人中創傷經歷的感知社會反應與PTSD和抑鬱症的關係。

撮要:社會確認問卷(SAQ; Maercker & Müller, 2004)量度創傷倖存者對社會確認和他人不贊同的感受,而這些因素與平民創傷倖存者的創傷後壓力症(PTSD)相關。本研究在美國退役軍人中驗證SAQ結構,並測試關於退役軍中家庭不贊同及普遍不贊同和他們的PTSD及抑鬱有相關的假設。參與者是經歷戰事創傷的198名美國退役軍,他們完成退役軍人事務PTSD治療專案的接受治療評估。結構方程式模型 (SEM) 結果支持一個SAQ 3-因子模型,與前人研究中社會確認,普遍不贊同和家庭不贊同的建構類似。SEM結果亦指出所有三個SAQ因子與退役軍的抑鬱症相連(分別是 -.31, .22和 .39),而只有普遍不贊同是與PTSD相連。本文是首個在退役軍人樣本中檢視SAQ的因子結構,和研究SAQ因子與創傷倖存者抑鬱症的關係的研究。結論與前人研究一致,顯示社會反應的正反面都對退役人員的創傷經歷有着重要影響。

标题:寻求PTSD治疗的退役军人中创伤经历的感知社会反应与PTSD和抑郁症的关系。

撮要:社会确认问卷(SAQ; Maercker & Müller, 2004)量度创伤幸存者对社会确认和他人不赞同的感受,而这些因素与平民创伤幸存者的创伤后压力症(PTSD)相关。本研究在美国退役军人中验证SAQ结构,并测试关于退役军中家庭不赞同及普遍不赞同和他们的PTSD及抑郁有相关的假设。参与者是经历战事创伤的198名美国退役军,他们完成退役军人事务PTSD治疗项目的接受治疗评估。结构方程式模型 (SEM) 结果支持一个SAQ 3-因子模型,与前人研究中社会确认,普遍不赞同和家庭不赞同的建构类似。SEM结果亦指出所有三个SAQ因子与退役军的抑郁症有关系(分别是 -.31, .22和 .39),而只有普遍不赞同是与PTSD有关系。本文是首个在退役军人样本中检视SAQ的因子结构,和研究SAQ因子与创伤幸存者抑郁症的关系的研究。结论与前人研究一致,显示社会反应的正反面都对退役人员的创伤经历有着重要影响。