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Subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology were replicated and extended in 254 female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cluster analyses on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Personality Psychopathology Five scales (Harkness, McNulty, & Ben-Porath, 1995) yielded internalizing and externalizing psychopathology dimensions, with a third low psychopathology group (simple PTSD). Externalizers were higher than the internalizers and the simple PTSD groups on the antisocial, substance, and aggression scales; internalizers were higher on depression and anxiety scales. Further validation included an independent measure of psychopathology to examine anger (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, [BDHI]; Buss & Durkee, 1957). Externalizers were higher on extreme behavioral anger scales (assault and verbal hostility); and externalizers and internalizers were higher than the simple PTSD subjects on other anger scales. Positive correlations between the BDHI scales and the PTSD symptom of “irritability and anger outbursts” were found across scales in the total sample (range: r = .19–.36), on the assault scale in externalizers (r = .59), and the verbal hostility scale in both internalizers (r = .30) and simple PTSD (r = .37) groups, suggesting the broad utility of the symptom in the diagnosis. The results demonstrate the generalizability of the internalizing/externalizing typology to the female veteran population and highlight clinically relevant distinctions in anger expression within PTSD.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:創傷後精神病理學和憤怒表現的外化和內化類別。

撮要:在254名患有創傷後壓力症(PTSD)的女退役兵中重覆及延展創傷後精神病理學類別。群集分析了明民蘇達多相人格量表-2和人格精神病理學五量表 (Harkness, McNulty, & Ben-Porath,1995),得出內化和外化精神病理學維度,及第三個低精神病理學組別(簡單PTSD)。外化者對比內化者和簡單PTSD組別,在反社會、物質濫用和暴力量度方面得分較高,而內化者則在抑鬱及焦慮方面得分較高。採用獨立精神病理學量度來驗證憤怒 (Buss-Durkee敵意量表,BDHI;Buss & Durkee,1957)。外化者在極端行為憤怒量度更高 (襲擊和語言敵意);而外化者和內化者對比簡單PTSD者都在其他憤怒量度更高。BDHI量表和PTSD的"易激和憤怒爆發"症狀呈正相連 (在所有樣本的量度中,值域 r=.19至.36),與外化者襲擊量度 (r=.59) 呈正相連,亦在內化者 (r=.30) 和簡單PTSD (r=.37) 組別的語言敵意呈正相連。這顯示診斷中這症狀的廣泛使用性。結果指出在女退役軍人中外化/內化類別的概括性,及PTSD中憤怒表達的臨床相關區別的重要性。

标题:创伤后精神病理学和愤怒表现的外化和内化类别。

撮要:在254名患有创伤后压力症(PTSD)的女退役兵中重复及延展创伤后精神病理学类别。聚类分析了明民苏达多相人格量表-2和人格精神病理学五量表 (Harkness, McNulty, & Ben-Porath,1995),得出内化和外化精神病理学维度,及第三个低精神病理学组别(简单PTSD)。外化者对比内化者和简单PTSD组别,在反社会、物质滥用和暴力量度方面得分较高,而内化者则在抑郁及焦虑方面得分较高。采用独立精神病理学量度来验证愤怒 (Buss-Durkee敌意量表,BDHI;Buss & Durkee,1957)。外化者在极端行为愤怒量度更高 (袭击和语言敌意);而外化者和内化者对比简单PTSD者都在其他愤怒量度更高。BDHI量表和PTSD的"易激和愤怒爆发"症状呈正相连 (在所有样本的量度中,值域 r=.19至.36),与外化者袭击量度 (r=.59) 呈正相连,亦在内化者 (r=.30) 和简单PTSD (r=.37) 组别的语言敌意呈正相连。这显示诊断中这症状的广泛使用性。结果指出在女退役军人中外化/内化类别的概括性,及PTSD中愤怒表达的临床相关区别的重要性。