Attention Bias Variability and Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Authors


  • The first three authors contributed equally to the study and preparation of this article.

  • This work was supported in part by The Leo and Julia Forchheimer Foundation in collaboration with the Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

Abstract

Cognitive theories implicate information-processing biases in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Results of attention-bias studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been inconsistent, suggesting biases towards and away from threat. Within-subject variability of attention biases in posttraumatic patients may be a useful marker for attentional control impairment and the development of posttrauma symptoms. This study reports 2 experiments investigating threat-related attention biases, mood and anxiety symptoms, and attention-bias variability following trauma. Experiment 1 included 3 groups in a cross-sectional design: (a) PTSD, (b) trauma-exposed without PTSD, and (c) healthy controls with no trauma or Axis I diagnoses. Greater attention-bias variability was found in the PTSD group compared to the other 2 groups math formula; attention-bias variability was significantly and positively correlated (r = .37) with PTSD symptoms. Experiment 2 evaluated combat-exposed and nonexposed soldiers before and during deployment. Attention-bias variability did not differentiate groups before deployment, but did differentiate groups during deployment math formula; increased variability was observed in groups with acute posttraumatic stress symptoms and acute depression symptoms only. Attention-bias variability could be a useful marker for attentional impairment related to threat cues associated with mood and anxiety symptoms after trauma exposure.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:注意力偏差的變動和創傷後壓力症症狀

撮要:認知理論指出焦慮症的起源會是資訊處理偏差。創傷後壓力症(PTSD)的注意力偏差研究未有一致的結果,或許是偏差可以是接近或遠離威脅。受創病人注意力偏差的個體內變化可能是注意力控制障礙和創傷後症狀的標記。本研究報告兩個試驗,檢測創傷後威脅相關的注意力偏差,情緒和焦慮症狀,和注意力偏差的變動。試驗1包括橫斷面設計內三個組別:(a)PTSD,(b)經歷創傷但未有PTSD,和(c)沒有創傷或軸1診斷的健康對照組。對比其他兩組(n2p=.23)PTSD有更高注意力偏差的變動;而注意力偏差的變動與PTSD症狀呈顯着的正相連(r=.37)。試驗2評估經歷戰鬥及非經歷士兵在派駐前及期間的狀況。注意力偏差變動未能辨別派駐前組別,但可分辨派駐期間的組別(n2p=.16);添加的變動只見於急性創傷後壓力症狀和急性抑鬱症狀組別。注意力偏差的變動可以是經歷創傷後情緒和焦慮症狀相連威脅暗示的注意力障礙的有效標記。

标题:注意力偏差的变动和创伤后压力症症状

撮要:认知理论指出焦虑症的起源会是信息处理偏差。创伤后压力症(PTSD)的注意力偏差研究未有一致的结果,或许是偏差可以是接近或远离威胁。受创病人注意力偏差的个体内变化可能是注意力控制障碍和创伤后症状的标记。本研究报告两个试验,检测创伤后威胁相关的注意力偏差,情绪和焦虑症状,和注意力偏差的变动。试验1包括横断面设计内三个组别:(a)PTSD,(b)经历创伤但未有PTSD,和(c)没有创伤或轴1诊断的健康对照组。对比其他两组(n2p=.23)PTSD有更高注意力偏差的变动;而注意力偏差的变动与PTSD症状呈显着的正相连(r=.37)。试验2评估经历战斗及非经历士兵在派驻前及期间的状况。注意力偏差变动未能辨别派驻前组别,但可分辨派驻期间的组别(n2p=.16);添加的变动只见于急性创伤后压力症状和急性忧郁症状组别。注意力偏差的变动可以是经历创伤后情绪和焦虑症状相连威胁暗示的注意力障碍的有效标记。

Ancillary