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Many studies have shown that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience more anger over time and across situations (i.e., trait anger) than trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD. There is a lack of prospective research, however, that considers anger levels before trauma exposure. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the relationship between trait anger and PTSD symptoms, with several known risk factors, including baseline symptoms, neuroticism, and stressor severity in the model. Participants were 249 Dutch soldiers tested approximately 2 months before and approximately 2 months and 9 months after their deployment to Afghanistan. Trait anger and PTSD symptom severity were measured at all assessments. Structural equation modeling including cross-lagged effects showed that higher trait anger before deployment predicted higher PTSD symptoms 2 months after deployment (β = .36), with stressor severity and baseline symptoms in the model, but not with neuroticism in the model. Trait anger at 2 months postdeployment did not predict PTSD symptom severity at 9 months, and PTSD symptom severity 2 months postdeployment did not predict subsequent trait anger scores. Findings suggest that trait anger may be a pretrauma vulnerability factor for PTSD symptoms, but does not add variance beyond the effect of neuroticism.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:憤怒:創傷後壓力是因是果?一個前瞻性軍人研究。

撮要:研究大多指出創傷後壓力症(PTSD)患者對比經歷創傷但未有PTSD人士,有著更多與時俱增及跨越不同狀況的憤怒(即憤怒素質)。但現時未有前瞻性研究評估創傷前憤怒水平。本文前瞻性評估憤怒素質和PTSD症狀之間的關係,及其他模型內風險因素,包括基準症狀、「神經質」和壓力水平。參與者是249名荷蘭士兵,在派駐阿富汗兩個月前、兩個及九個月後接受評估。在所有階段中都評估憤怒素質和PTSD症狀的程度。包括交叉滯後效應在內的結構方程式模型顯示較高派駐前憤怒素質預知派駐後兩個月的較高PTSD症狀(β=.36),而模型內包括壓力程度和基準症狀但卻不可有「神經質」這一因素在內。派駐後兩個月的憤怒素質不能預測九個月後PTSD症狀的程度,而兩個月後PTSD症狀程度亦不能預知繼後憤怒素質得分。結果指出憤怒素質可能是PTSD症狀的創傷前弱點,但未能在「神經質」效應外加添變量。

标题:愤怒:创伤后压力是因是果?一个前瞻性军人研究。

撮要:研究大多指出创伤后压力症(PTSD)患者对比经历创伤但未有PTSD人士,有着更多与时俱增及跨越不同状况的愤怒(即愤怒素质)。但现时未有前瞻性研究评估创伤前愤怒水平。本文前瞻性评估愤怒素质和PTSD症状之间的关系,及其他模型内风险因素,包括基准症状、「神经质」和压力水平。参与者是249名荷兰士兵,在派驻阿富汗两个月前、两个及九个月后接受评估。在所有阶段中都评估愤怒素质和PTSD症状的程度。包括交叉滞后效应在内的结构方程式模型显示较高派驻前愤怒素质预知派驻后两个月的较高PTSD症状(β=.36),而模型内包括压力程度和基准症状但却不可有「神经质」这一因素在内。派驻后两个月的愤怒素质不能预测九个月后PTSD症状的程度,而两个月后PTSD症状程度亦不能预知继后愤怒素质得分。结果指出愤怒素质可能是PTSD症状的创伤前弱点,但未能在「神经质」效应外加添变量。