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In a sample with known levels of preshooting posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, we examined the impact of a campus mass shooting on trajectories of PTS in the 31 months following the shooting using latent growth mixture modeling. Female students completed 7 waves of a longitudinal study (sample sizes ranged from 812 to 559). We identified 4 distinct trajectories (n = 660): (a) minimal impact-resilience (60.9%), (b) high impact-recovery (29.1%), (c) moderate impact-moderate symptoms (8.2%), and (d) chronic dysfunction (1.8%). Individuals in each trajectory class remained at or returned to preshooting levels of PTS approximately 6 months postshooting. The minimal impact-resilience class reported less prior trauma exposure (η2 = .13), less shooting exposure (η2 = .07), and greater emotion regulation skills than all other classes (η2 > .30). The chronic dysfunction class endorsed higher rates of experiential avoidance prior to the shooting than the minimal-impact resilient and high impact-recovery classes (η2 = .15), as well as greater shooting exposure than the high impact-recovery class (η2 = .07). Findings suggest that preshooting functioning and emotion regulation distinguish between those who experience prolonged distress following mass violence and those who gradually recover.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:校園大型槍擊事件後大學女生創傷後壓力的預期軌跡。

撮要:本研究在一個已評估槍擊前創傷後壓力(PTS)症狀的樣本中,檢視一次校園大型槍擊事件對事件後31個月PTS軌跡的影響(採用潛在成長混合模型)。樣本的女學生完成縱向研究的七輪檢測(樣本規模為812至559)。清晰軌跡(n = 660)有四條為:(a)最小衝擊復原力(60.9%),(b)高衝擊復原(29.1%),(c)中度衝擊舒緩症狀(8.2%)和(d)慢性功能障礙(1.8%)。槍擊後半年內,每一軌跡內人士繼續或回到PTS槍擊前水平。最小衝擊復原力組別報告對比其他組:較少以往創傷經歷(η2 = .13),較少槍擊經歷(η2 = .07),和較多情緒調節技巧(η2>.30)。慢性功能障礙組別對比最小衝擊復原或高衝擊復原組別有更高槍擊前體驗迴避比率(η2 = .15) ;而與復原組別相比,則有更嚴重槍擊經歷(η2 = .07)。結果指出槍擊前功能和情緒控制能分辨大型暴力事件後復原者和持續受困擾者。

标题:校园大型枪击事件后大学女生创伤后压力的预期轨迹。

撮要:本研究在一个已评估枪击前创伤后压力(PTS)症状的样本中,检视一次校园大型枪击事件对事件后31个月PTS轨迹的影响(采用潜在成长混合模型)。样本的女学生完成纵向研究的七轮检测(样本规模为812至559)。清晰轨迹(n = 660)有四条为:(a)最小冲击复原力(60.9%),(b)高冲击复原(29.1%),(c)中度冲击舒缓症状(8.2%)和(d)慢性功能障碍(1.8%)。枪击后半年内,每一轨迹内人士继续或回到PTS枪击前水平。最小冲击复原力组别报告对比其他组:较少以往创伤经历(η2 = .13),较少枪击经历(η2 = .07),和较多情绪调节技巧(η2>.30)。慢性功能障碍组别对比最小冲击复原或高冲击复原组别有更高枪击前体验回避比率(η2 = .15) ;而与复原组别相比,则有更严重枪击经历(η2 = .07)。结果指出枪击前功能和情绪控制能分辨大型暴力事件后复原者和持续受困扰者。