Verbal Learning Deficits in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression

Authors

  • Diane L. Scheiner,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Psychology, Fordham University, Bronx, New York, USA
    • Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Diane Scheiner, Psychology Department (116B), VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, West Los Angeles Healthcare Center, Building 256, Room 204, 11301 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90073. E-mail: dscheiner@fordham.edu

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  • John Keilp,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, and Division of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA
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  • Monica Rivera Mindt,

    1. Department of Psychology, Fordham University, Bronx, New York, USA
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  • Ainsley K. Burke,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, and Division of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA
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  • Maria A. Oquendo,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, and Division of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA
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  • J. John Mann

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, and Division of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA
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  • This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health grants MH-62155 and Conte Center for the Neurobiology of Mental Disorders (5 P50 MH-62185). The authors wish to thank Nilima Ramaswamy, Mary Russell, Benjamin Hamburger, and Simone LeBlanc of the New York State Psychiatric Institute, for their assistance in the collection of study data. We also express our appreciation to each of our volunteer research participants.

Abstract

Verbal learning and memory deficits are frequently reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but may be a product of its psychiatric comorbidities, especially major depressive disorder (MDD). To evaluate this hypothesis, 25 medication-free patients with PTSD and comorbid MDD were compared to 148 medication-free patients with equally severe MDD alone and to 96 nonpatients on a measure of verbal learning and memory. Additional measures of attention, working memory, and executive function were administered to evaluate their contribution to verbal memory impairment. Patients with comorbid PTSD and MDD demonstrated the greatest deficit in verbal learning compared to both MDD patients and nonpatients (omnibus effect sizes ranged d = 0.41 to 0.50), one that was not accounted for by other cognitive deficits. Findings suggest that a current diagnosis of PTSD makes a contribution to verbal learning deficits beyond the effect of depression alone.

Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS

標題:創傷後壓力症和抑鬱症的語言學習缺失

撮要:創傷後壓力症(PTSD) 多有語言學習和記憶的缺失,但亦可能是精神病的共病所致,特別是抑鬱症(MDD)。25名未曾服藥的PTSD和MDD共病病者對照148名未服藥的同樣嚴重抑鬱病人及96名非患病者,採用語言學習和記憶量度來評估此假說。專注力、工作記憶和執行力的量度進一步評核它們對語言記憶受損的影響。PTSD和MDD共病的病人對比MDD病人和非患病者(綜合有效值從d = .41至.50),患有最嚴重的語言學習缺失,而其他認知缺失未能解釋此現象。結論指出現存PTSD診斷對語言學習缺失的影響不只限於抑鬱症影響而已。

标题:创伤后压力症和抑郁症的语言学习缺失

撮要:创伤后压力症(PTSD) 多有语言学习和记忆的缺失,但亦可能是精神病的共病所致,特别是抑郁症(MDD)。25名未曾服药的PTSD和MDD共病病者对照148名未服药的同样严重抑郁病人及96名非患病者,采用语言学习和记忆量度来评估此假说。专注力、工作记忆和执行力的量度进一步评核它们对语言记忆受损的影响。PTSD和MDD共病的病人对比MDD病人和非患病者(综合有效值从d = .41至.50),患有最严重的语言学习缺失,而其他认知缺失未能解释此现象。结论指出现存PTSD诊断对语言学习缺失的影响不只限于抑郁症影响而已。

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