A nation's response to attack: Israelis' depressive reactions to the gulf war



We examined Israelis' reactions to the Gulf War and SCUD missile attacks. Four national samples of Israelis (n = 3,204) were interviewed as to depressive mood on four occasions—prior to the Gulf Crisis, as the war approached, during the SCUD missile attacks, and after cessation of hostilities. There was an expected increase in depressive mood during the period of SCUD missile attacks and a quick return to base-line levels following the hostilities. Less educated and older individuals reported higher base-line levels of depressive mood and were at higher risk for clinical depression. Women and men did not differ in depressive mood before or after the SCUD missile attacks. However, women experienced a marked increase in depressive mood when the SCUD missile attacks occurred.