Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) constitutes the majority (>99%) of sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.) winter diets. Thus, identification and protection of important winter habitats is a conservation priority. However, not all sagebrush may be alike. More information is needed regarding sage-grouse sagebrush winter dietary preferences for application to management. The objective of our research was to determine if chemical analysis of fecal pellets could be used to characterize winter sage-grouse diets as a substitute for more invasive methods. We collected and analyzed fecal pellets and sagebrush samples from 29 different sage-grouse flock locations in northwestern and southcentral Utah. Using gas chromatography, we were able to identify crude terpene profiles that were unique to Wyoming sagebrush (A. tridentata wyomingensis) and black sagebrush (A. nova). We subsequently used the profiles to determine sagebrush composition of sage-grouse fecal pellets, thus reflecting sage-grouse winter diets. This technique provides managers with a tool to determine which species or subspecies of sagebrush may be important in the winter diets of sage-grouse populations. © 2011 The Wildlife Society.