• density dependence;
  • environmental stochasticity;
  • K-selected species;
  • maximum sustained yield;
  • nonlinear;
  • r-selected species;
  • theta-logistic


This article briefly reviews and provides discussion on the evidence for, and nature of, density-dependence patterns in r and K-selected species. In this review, I discuss how life-history strategies cause different nonlinear density-dependence patterns and I provide a simple modeling recommendation to incorporate nonlinear density dependence in population growth equations. Second, I discuss the importance of incorporation of environmental stochasticity and local extinction associated with nonlinear density dependence associated with life-history patterns through a novel modeling exercise. Last, I discuss the importance of considering how life-history nonlinear density dependence could affect optimal harvest yields. Though these topics are extensive, this review should spur wildlife biologists and managers to consider more inclusive population models that incorporate life-history strategies and stochasticity in their decision-making processes. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.