• bait;
  • bias;
  • camera;
  • Odocoileus virginianus;
  • population monitoring;
  • random sampling;
  • trail camera;
  • white-tailed deer


Camera surveys often involve placing bait in front of the camera to capture animals more frequently, which could introduce biases in parameter estimates. From September 2008 to March 2009, we monitored cameras placed at random, along game trails, and at feed stations to determine if camera placement influenced measures of population demographics in a herd of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). There was no time period in which cameras placed at feed stations provided sex ratio and recruitment estimates similar to those acquired from randomly placed cameras. Trail-based camera surveys provided population estimates similar to those from random sites and may provide a feasible alternative to using baited camera stations. © 2011 The Wildlife Society.