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Figure S1. Results from STRUCTURE (Hubisz et al. 2009) analyses as decomposed in STRUCTURE HARVESTER (Earl and vonHoldt 2012). Plots are of (a) the log likelihood of the number of genetically distinct groups (K) in each sample, and (b) ΔK from the method of Evanno et al. (2005).

Figure S2. Genealogies of 6 haplotypes (large circles) identified from a 515 base-pair section of the mitochondrial control region. Small circles were inferred base changes. Haplotypes were identified in populations of California bighorn sheep with different translocation histories in Oregon and Nevada, USA, and British Columbia, Canada.

Table S1. Timing and origin of bighorn sheep translocations referred to in this study. This table complements the information presented visually in Figure 1 in the main text, and primary sources can also be found there.

Table S2. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers used in this study. Primer sequences, optimized annealing temperatures (TA), concentrations of MgCl2, cycles in the PCR reaction, fragment size range and the number of alleles detected from 385 bighorn sheep of central British Columbian decent sampled from populations with 1st order, 2nd order, and mixed translocation histories. Four additional loci, BM18181, CELJP234, OarAE165, and TGLA9412 did not amplify reliably and were not further analyzed. Loci OarFCB193 and BM1225 were not used in analyses due to error rates >4%.

Table S3. Genetic differentiation (FST) between populations based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (below diagonal) and a suite of microsatellite markers (above diagonal). Values significantly >0 are indicated in bold. Comparisons below diagonal indicated by a hyphen (-) lacked haplotype diversity.

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