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Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on molecular interaction of antipyrine donor and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone as an electron acceptor in different solvents



The charge–transfer (CT) complex of donor antipyrine with Π-acceptor 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) has been investigated spectrophotometrically in different halocarbon and acetonitrile solvents. The results indicated immediate formation of an electron donor–acceptor complex (DA), which is followed by two relatively slow consecutive reactions. The pseudo–first-order rate constants for the formation of the ionic intermediate and the final product at various temperatures were evaluated from the absorbance–time data. The activation parameters, viz. activation energy, enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of activation, were computed from temperature dependence of rate constants. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 by Job's method of continuous variation. The formation constants of the resulting DA complexes were determined by the Benesi–Hildebrand equation at four different temperatures. The enthalpies and entropies of the complex formation reactions have been obtained by temperature dependence of the formation constants using Van't Hoff equation. The results indicate that DDQ complexes of antipyrine in all solvents are enthalpy stabilized but entropy destabilized. Both the kinetics of the interaction and the formation constants of the complexes are dependent upon the polarity of the solvents. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 45: 81–91, 2013