The level of evidence is 2c.
Suprathreshold gustatory stimuli cause biphasic respiratory responses during resting respiration in humans†
Article first published online: 4 MAR 2010
Copyright © 2010 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Volume 120, Issue 4, pages 849–853, April 2010
How to Cite
Bitter, T., Laetzel, M., Lehnich, H., Guntinas-Lichius, O. and Gudziol, H. (2010), Suprathreshold gustatory stimuli cause biphasic respiratory responses during resting respiration in humans. The Laryngoscope, 120: 849–853. doi: 10.1002/lary.20805
The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
- Issue published online: 22 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 4 MAR 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 10 NOV 2009
- expert opinion;
- orienting reaction
Until now there has been no standardized and internationally accepted method available to objectify taste perception. Such a method would be useful for expert opinions in the assessment of gustatory disorders. The aim of our study was to develop and evaluate an analogous method for the gustatory sense.
Nonrandomized, controlled clinical trial.
A continuous flow of water was presented to the tongues of 34 healthy adult subjects (15 men, 19 women). In this stream, suprathreshold gustatory stimuli were applied during regular resting respiration. Nasal respiration was measured unilaterally with a differential pressure transducer.
No significant differences were measured between the different tastants but were between tastants and blanks. Gustatory-evoked changes in the breathing pattern resulted frequently in a prolongation of the first poststimulatory breath. The second and third breath became frequently shorter.
The observed gustatory-evoked respiratory responses are probably orienting reflex (OR) reactions. The deceleration of the first breath could be related to attention toward any chemosensory input. The acceleration of the second and third breath could reflect the subject's intention to recognize the four taste qualities. The measurement of respiratory OR evoked by gustatory stimuli can be used as a simple, inexpensive, and reliable objectifying clinical tool to prove intact central gustatory processing. Laryngoscope, 2010