Proposed definitive grading system tool for the assessment of adenoid hyperplasia

Authors

  • Gary D. Josephson MD, MBA,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A
    2. Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, U.S.A.
    • Nemours Children's Clinic, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, 5th Floor, 807 Children's Way, Jacksonville Florida 32225
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  • Laurie Duckworth PhD,

    1. Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A
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  • Jobayer Hossain PhD

    1. Biomedical Research, Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A
    2. University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, U.S.A.
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  • The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Abstract

Objectives/Hypothesis:

To propose a definitive standard grading scale in the assessment of adenoid tissue in relation to size, position, and proximity to surrounding anatomic structures. This will allow for better clinical communications among practitioners when treating this pathology, a better understanding of its relationship and how it effects neighboring structures (eustachian tube and choanae), and allow for a more precise description of this tissue for the purpose of research data collection and analysis.

Study Design:

A prospective evaluation of adenoid tissue during adenoidectomy was obtained documenting its size and descriptive relationship to adjacent structures (eustachian tube and choanae).

Methods:

A convenience sample of 150 children undergoing adenoidectomy alone or concurrently with tonsillectomy and/or myringotomy and tubes were prospectively evaluated. Mirror nasopharyngeal exam was performed in all cases. Size of the adenoid, as well as its relationship to the choanae and eustachian tube were recorded. A descriptive grading system tool was created accounting for these relationships. Statistical analysis was performed to offer a preliminary validation of the tool.

Results:

Adenoid grading scores were assigned to 150 pediatric patients, 74 males and 76 females, who underwent surgery for adenoidectomy with or without tonsillectomy and/or myringotomy and tube placement. Seven patients were found to have no adenoid tissue in the nasopharynx as they had previous adenoidectomy and received a grade of 0A−. The mean age was 5.71 years (range, 1–17 years). Of the 150 scores, 107 patients had an associated diagnosis of chronic hypertrophic adenoids and/or tonsils (CHAT) accounting for 71.3% of the sample. There was a significant increasing trend of CHAT with an increasing size and increasing blocking of the choanae. However, there is no relationship of this morbidity with blocking of the eustachian tube (ET). There is a strong inverse relationship between blocking of the choanae and chronic and recurrent adenotonsillitis. The percentage of patients with this morbidity significantly decreases with increasing blocking of the choanae. A total of nine patients with chronic sinusitis were found to have no relationship between size, blocking of the choanae, and abutting of the eustachian tube. Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) was significantly related to blocking of the eustachian tube (ET) in this study, as 54.3% experienced ETD in the presence of blocked ET compared to only 15% in the absence of a blocked ET. Among the components of the adenoid score, the diagnosis given preoperatively, and the surgical treatments performed, there were strong correlations found giving merit to the descriptive nature of this grading tool proposed.

Conclusions:

This grading system is simple, reliable, and easily used. It offers standardization for clinicians and researchers in facilitating communications, and allowing interpretation of adenoid tissue observed with its relationship to and effect on adjacent anatomic structures. This will allow more detailed information of findings during adenoid surgery to assist in future clinical research studies and outcomes analysis. Laryngoscope, 2011

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