The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Quality of Life
Health-related and specific olfaction-related quality of life in patients with chronic functional anosmia or severe hyposmia†
Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2011
Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Volume 121, Issue 4, pages 867–872, April 2011
How to Cite
Neuland, C., Bitter, T., Marschner, H., Gudziol, H. and Guntinas-Lichius, O. (2011), Health-related and specific olfaction-related quality of life in patients with chronic functional anosmia or severe hyposmia. The Laryngoscope, 121: 867–872. doi: 10.1002/lary.21387
- Issue online: 23 MAR 2011
- Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 SEP 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 13 SEP 2010
- Manuscript Received: 2 AUG 2010
- quality of life;
- Level of Evidence: 4
To measure health-related and olfaction-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with permanent, severe hyposmia or functional anosmia.
A case study in a university ENT department of patients with severe olfactory dysfunction defined by Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test kit with a score for odor threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) < 20 and a dysfunction lasting longer than 6 months.
Assessment of QoL by using the SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire and the Questionnaire for Olfactory Dysfunction (QOD).
A total of 958 patients were tested for smell disturbances from 1999 to 2009. Surveys were mailed to 527 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 280 (53%) returned completed surveys. All SF-36 domains in severely hyposmic and anosmic patients were lower than in the German normal population. Lower SF-36 QoL was found for some domains in female patients, older patients, and hyposmic patients (P < .05 for all groups). Based on the QOD, women showed more parosmia, and anosmic patients had more olfactory-related impairment (P < .05 for both); in general, higher olfactory impairment and higher parosmia score measured by QOD correlated with lower TDI values (all P < .05). Multivariate analysis revealed, for SF-36 domains, the following independent risk factors: female sex was a risk factor for bodily pain; higher age was a risk factor for physical functioning and role, bodily pain, and general health; hyposmia was a risk factor for bodily pain and mental health; QOD QoL was a risk factor for all SF-36 scales; and QOD parosmia was a risk factor for physical role (all P < .05).
QoL is severely impaired in patients with chronic severe hyposmia or anosmia. The QOD allows a more olfaction-specific assessment of QoL than the SF-36 instrument. Laryngoscope, 2011