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Keywords:

  • Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS);
  • biofilms;
  • S. aureus;
  • fungi;
  • bacteria;
  • treatment

Abstract

Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common disease whose underlying aetiopathogenesis has not been completely understood. Amongst a range of other potential environmental triggers in this disease, a role has recently been proposed for bacterial biofilms. Adopting the biofilm paradigm to explain the initiation and maintenance of this disease may help to clarify previous inconsistencies in this disease that have resulted in the role of bacteria being questioned. Of particular interest is the association of bacterial biofilms with recalcitrant disease states. Over the last five years, research has progressed rapidly since biofilms were first identified on the surface of diseased sinonasal mucosa. Their presence there has now been associated with more severe disease that is often recalcitrant to current management paradigms. Technological advances are allowing accurate characterization of the bacterial and fungal species within these biofilms, which would appear to be an important step in improving our understanding of how these bacterial communities might interact with the host to cause disease. This is an unanswered, yet highly important, question in this field of research that will undoubtedly be an area of investigation in the near future. As the body of evidence suggesting biofilms may be involved in this disease grows, research interest has switched to the development of antibiofilm therapies. Given the unique properties of bacteria existing in this form, biofilm eradication strategies will need to incorporate novel medical therapies into established surgical practices as we attempt to improve the outcomes of our most difficult patients.