High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has been identified as a principal instigator of injury-induced inflammation in many organ systems. Physiologically, HMGB1 binds to chromatin in cell nucleus. Upon injury, cells release HMGB1 to extracellular milieu, triggering a destructive inflammatory response. Neutralizing or removing HMGB1 has been shown to control inflammation. Unfortunately, the role of HMGB1 in laryngeal inflammation and healing has yet to be defined. The purpose of this study was to determine spatial and temporal patterns of HMGB1 expression in surgically injured rat vocal folds up to 2 weeks after injury.