The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clinical assessment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea: A systematic review and meta-analysis†
Article first published online: 9 AUG 2012
Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Volume 122, Issue 9, pages 2105–2114, September 2012
How to Cite
Certal, V., Catumbela, E., Winck, J. C., Azevedo, I., Teixeira-Pinto, A. and Costa-Pereira, A. (2012), Clinical assessment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Laryngoscope, 122: 2105–2114. doi: 10.1002/lary.23465
- Issue published online: 23 AUG 2012
- Article first published online: 9 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Received: 12 MAR 2012
- Pediatric sleep apnea;
- systematic review;
- diagnostic accuracy
Clinical symptoms and signs are routinely used to investigate pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to systematically assess the evidence for the diagnostic accuracy of individual or combined clinical symptoms and signs in predicting pediatric OSA.
A systematic review of the literature and diagnostic meta-analysis.
Four medical databases were searched (from inception to August 2011). Studies were included that compared the clinical assessment with the current gold standard (full polysomnography). The study quality was assessed using the quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies. Summary estimates of diagnostic accuracy were determined using the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio, and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model for meta-analyses.
Ten diagnostic studies with 1,525 patients were included in the review. There was substantial variation in the sensitivity and specificity among different symptoms and signs, as well as across studies. Tonsillar size and snoring reported by parents or caregivers had high sensitivity but low specificity. In contrast, excessive daytime somnolence, observed apnea, and difficulty in breathing during sleep had high specificity but low sensitivity. Seven models of a combination of symptoms and signs presented moderate sensitivity (range, 0.04–0.94) and specificity (range, 0.28–0.99). The HSROC indicates poor diagnostic performance of the symptoms and signs in predicting pediatric OSA.
Neither single nor combined symptoms and signs have satisfactory performance in predicting pediatric OSA. Alternative diagnostic models are necessary to improve the accuracy.