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Keywords:

  • Virtual endoscopy;
  • frontal recess cells;
  • frontal sinus ostia mapping;
  • frontal sinus surgery;
  • minimally invasive;
  • ostial configuration;
  • ostial orientation;
  • three-dimensional reconstruction;
  • three-dimensional analysis;
  • preoperative planning;
  • Level of Evidence: 4

Abstract

Objectives/Hypothesis:

To determine the relative location of the frontal sinus opening to other frontal cells using virtual endoscopy; and to assess whether the relative location of the frontal sinus ostium can be predicted.

Study Design:

Retrospective analysis of high-resolution computed tomography scans from 50 adult patients without frontal sinus disease or previous sinus surgery.

Methods:

Using virtual endoscopy software, 100 frontal recesses were mapped for the presence and relative position of the frontal sinus ostium to the following cells: agger nasi (ANC); frontal bullar; frontal types 1, 2, and 3; supraorbital ethmoid; suprabullar; and intersinus septal cells.

Results:

ANC and frontal type 3 cells were present in 92% and 45% of frontal recesses, respectively. All other cell types had a prevalence of ≤25%. Fifty percent of recesses had two rows of ostia anterior to posterior (AP), and the frontal opening was anterior in 52%. When there were three rows of cells AP (39%), the frontal opening was in the center in 64% of cases. Thirty-five percent of recesses had two rows of ostia medial to lateral (ML), and the frontal opening was medial 80% of the time. When there were three rows of openings ML (45%), the frontal opening was in the center 56% of the time.

Conclusions:

The frontal sinus recess is variable and complex. Virtual endoscopy can be used to analyze the frontal recess and assist in presurgical planning. Although there is variability in the ostial configuration present in the frontal recess, the probable position of the frontal sinus ostium can be predicted. Laryngoscope, 2012