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Prevalence and associated risk factors of allergic rhinitis in preschool children in Beijing

Authors

  • Ya-Mei Zhang MD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Otolaryngology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
    • Ya-Mei Zhang, Department of Otolaryngology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China

      De-Yun Wang, Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228

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  • Jie Zhang MD,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Shi-Lin Liu MD,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Xing Zhang MD,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Su-Na Yang MD,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Juan Gao MD,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Jing Zhao MD,

    1. Department of Otolaryngology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Hui Chen MD,

    1. Department of Statistics, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Xin-Xin Chen MD,

    1. Beijing Maternal & Child Health Care Hospital, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Feng-Xin Sun MD,

    1. Da Xing Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Liang Shen PhD,

    1. Biostatistics Unit, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
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  • De-Yun Wang MD, PhD

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    • Ya-Mei Zhang, Department of Otolaryngology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China

      De-Yun Wang, Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228

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  • Declaration of all sources of funding: This study was supported by the research grants given by the Foundation of Beijing Municipal Education Commission (KW200610025018) and Beijing Medicine Research and Development Fund (2009–3125).

  • The authors declared that no conflict of interest exists.

Abstract

Objectives/Hypothesis:

To investigate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) and its associated risk factors in preschool children in Beijing.

Study design:

Two-stage, clustered, stratified random sample study.

Methods:

Parents of 4,075 children aged 3, 4, and 5 years in urban and suburban areas were surveyed using a questionnaire. A random subgroup of 1,067 children was examined by otolaryngologists with skin prick test (SPT).

Results:

The survey response rate was 98.3%. Based on the criteria published by ARIA document, the prevalence of epidemiologic AR was 48% (53.2% in urban areas; 43.4% in suburban areas). Among 795 children with epidemiologic AR, sensitization to common inhalant allergens was confirmed by a positive SPT in 248 children (31.2%). Thus, the adjusted prevalence of clinical AR was 14.9% (19.5% in urban areas; 10.8% in suburban areas). In these AR children, 166 (67.1%) were intermittent and 82 (32.9%) persistent, with moderate/severe symptoms in 103 (41.5%). The most common inhalant allergens were Alternaria tenuis (55.7%), followed by Dermatophagoides farina (39.4%), and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (38.6%). Both asthma (adjusted OR 4.88, 95% CI: 3.48–6.86) and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.15–1.94) appear to be significant concomitant risk factors for AR.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of AR in young children can be overestimated using epidemiologic criteria. AR is a common disease in Asian preschool children, with an increasing trend as children get older, and is higher in urban than suburban areas—suggesting an important role for environmental risk factors in AR. Laryngoscope, 2013

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