Congenital craniofacial malformations or syndromes in the visual arts

Authors

  • Wolfgang Pirsig MD

    Corresponding author
    1. Wolfgang Pirsig, MD (Retired), is the former head of Rhinology and Rhonchopathy, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    • (Retired), is the former head of Rhinology and Rhonchopathy, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
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  • Dr. Pirsig presented a fascinating and detailed lunchtime talk replete with 50 photos of numerous craniofacial malformations depicted in the ancient art of Japan, Egypt, Greece, and pre-Columbian America. He spoke at length about the reactions of ancient societies to these anomalies. This article is an abridged version of his presentation.

  • The author has no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.

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