Dr. Pirsig presented a fascinating and detailed lunchtime talk replete with 50 photos of numerous craniofacial malformations depicted in the ancient art of Japan, Egypt, Greece, and pre-Columbian America. He spoke at length about the reactions of ancient societies to these anomalies. This article is an abridged version of his presentation. ‡
The author has no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.