The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Head and Neck
Swallowing kinematics and airway protection after palatal local anesthesia in infant pigs
Article first published online: 29 OCT 2013
Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Volume 124, Issue 2, pages 436–445, February 2014
How to Cite
Holman, S. D., Campbell-Malone, R., Ding, P., Gierbolini-Norat, E. M., Lukasik, S. L., Waranch, D. R. and German, R. Z. (2014), Swallowing kinematics and airway protection after palatal local anesthesia in infant pigs. The Laryngoscope, 124: 436–445. doi: 10.1002/lary.24204
This project was funded by a 2012 American Association for Dental Research Student Research Fellowship to s.d.h.; funded by the National Institutes of Health: T32 DE07309, which provided training support to s.d.h.; F30 DE021944 to s.d.h.; T32 HD007414, which provided training support to r.c.-m.; and R01 DC03604 to r.z.g. r.c.-m. was supported in part by a United Negro College Fund/Merck Science Initiative Postdoctoral Fellowship sponsored by the United Negro College Fund and Merck Company Foundation.
- Issue published online: 21 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 29 OCT 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 MAY 2013 03:38AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 APR 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 2 APR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 13 DEC 2012
- greater palatine nerve;
- nasopalatine nerve;
- animal model;
Abnormal kinematics during swallowing can result in aspiration, which may become life threatening. We tested the role of palatal sensation in the motor control of pharyngeal swallow in infants.
In eight infant pigs, we reduced palatal sensation using local anesthesia (PLA) and measured the impact on swallowing kinematics and airway protection.
The pigs drank milk containing barium while we simultaneously recorded videofluoroscopy and electromyography from fine wire bipolar electrodes in several hyolaryngeal muscles. We compared these results to control feedings and feedings following palatal saline injections.
After PLA, four pigs had extreme jaw movements and abnormal tongue movement uncharacteristic of sucking. For this reason, we evaluated differences between these group B pigs and the others that could suck normally after PLA (group A). In the four group A pigs, after PLA there was less hyoid elevation (P < .001) but normal jaw and tongue movements. In group B, in addition to greater jaw movement (P < .001) there was more anterior and superior tongue movement (P < .001) and a larger range of hyoid movement (P < .001).
The airway was protected in all of the pigs, indicating that these changes allowed successful adaptation to the reduction in palatal sensation. However, the oral and pharyngeal phases of the swallow were functionally linked, and trigeminal sensation influenced the motor control of the pharyngeal swallow.
Level of Evidence
N/A Laryngoscope, 124:436–445, 2014