Oral plus nasal corticosteroids improve smell, nasal congestion, and inflammation in sino-nasal polyposis

Authors

  • Isam Alobid MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Rhinology Unit and Smell Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    2. Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques, August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    3. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias, (CIBERES), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    • Send correspondence to Isam Alobid, Rhinology Unit and Smell Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain 8015. E-mail: isamobid@hotmail.com

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  • Pedro Benítez MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Sant Joan Despí–Moisès Broggi, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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  • Sara Cardelús MD,

    1. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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  • Francisco de Borja Callejas MS,

    1. Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques, August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias, (CIBERES), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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  • Eduardo Lehrer-Coriat MD,

    1. Rhinology Unit and Smell Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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  • Laura Pujols PhD,

    1. Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques, August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias, (CIBERES), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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  • Cesar Picado MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Pneumology and Allergy, Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias, (CIBERES), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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  • Joaquim Mullol MD, PhD

    1. Rhinology Unit and Smell Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    2. Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques, August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    3. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias, (CIBERES), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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  • This article was sponsored by Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria (FIS 99-0133), Instituto de Salud Carlos III. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Abstract

Objectives/Hypothesis

To assess the effect of oral plus intranasal corticosteroids on subjective outcomes (smell and nasal congestion) and objective outcomes (tissue eosinophilia and nitric oxide) in severe nasal polyposis (NP).

Study Design

After a 4-week steroid washout period (w0), severe NP were randomized into a treatment group (n = 67) that receive oral prednisone for 2 weeks (w2) plus intranasal budesonide for 12 weeks (w12), and a control group (n = 22) that received no steroid treatment.

Methods

Barcelona Smell Test 24 (BAST-24), nasal congestion, tissue eosinophilia, and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) were assessed.

Results

Before treatment, patients showed a significant impairment of smell detection (30.7 ± 39.5%), identification (7.1 ± 16.1%), and forced choice (13.8 ± 23.3%) in BAST-24 compared to healthy population. At w2, the treatment group showed a significant improvement in detection, identification, and forced choice. Positive effect was also seen after 12 weeks of intranasal corticosteroids. A significant reduction of nasal congestion (1.17 ± 1.0 vs. 2.73 ± 0.5) and polyp tissue eosinophilia (10.9 ± 4.2 vs. 41.2 ± 12.2) with an increase of nNO (650 ± 317 vs. 420 ± 221 ppb) were observed at w2 compared to w0 and to the control group. These effects were also seen at w12.

Conclusions

Combined oral and intranasal corticosteroids improve smell and nasal congestion and decrease nasal inflammation, as measured by reduced tissue eosinophilia and increased detection of nNO. Severity of smell loss correlates with degree of nasal congestion but not with inflammation, as measured by tissue eosinophilia or nasally exhaled nNO. Our findings suggest that improvement in smell may be related to improved conduction of odorants to the olfactory neuroepithelium.

Level of Evidence

Ib. Laryngoscope, 124:50–56, 2014

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