Presented at the 29th World Congress of the International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, Turin, Italy, August 25–29, 2013.
Voice in female-to-male transsexual persons after long-term androgen therapy
Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2013
© 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Volume 124, Issue 6, pages 1409–1414, June 2014
How to Cite
Cosyns, M., Van Borsel, J., Wierckx, K., Dedecker, D., Van de Peer, F., Daelman, T., Laenen, S. and T'Sjoen, G. (2014), Voice in female-to-male transsexual persons after long-term androgen therapy. The Laryngoscope, 124: 1409–1414. doi: 10.1002/lary.24480
The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
- Issue online: 27 MAY 2014
- Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 24 OCT 2013 04:13AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 18 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 3 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Received: 10 JUN 2013
- hormonal factors
The aim of the present study was to 1) document voice in a large sample of female-to-male transsexual persons (FMT), 2) compare their vocal characteristics with those of heterosexual biological males, and 3) determine hormonal factors with impact on their fundamental frequency.
This was a controlled cross-sectional study. It is the largest study to date on voice and voice change in FMT, and the first to include a control group and FMT who were under long-term androgen administration.
Thirty-eight FMT, ranging in age between 22 and 54 years, and 38 controls, frequency matched by age and smoking behavior, underwent a voice assessment that comprised the determination of pitch, intonation, and perturbation parameters measured during sustained vowel production, counting, and reading. Hormonal factors explored were hematocrit, total testosterone level, luteinizing hormone level, and biallelic mean length of the cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat sequence in the androgen receptor gene.
It was found that the FMT as a group did not differ significantly from controls for any of the acoustic voice variables studied. However, in about 10% pitch lowering was not totally unproblematic. The lowest-pitched (i.e., more male) voices were observed in FMT with higher hematocrit and longer CAG repeats.
After long-term androgen therapy, FMT generally demonstrate an acceptable male voice. Pitch-lowering difficulties can be expected in about 10% of cases and appear, at least in part, to be associated with diminished androgen sensitivity.
Level of Evidence
3b. Laryngoscope, 124:1409–1414, 2014