The primary objective of this study was to analyze soil degradation and altered flood risks as a consequence of deforestation. The results showed that the use of fuelwood and competition for agriculture land are the main causes of deforestation, which leads to increased soil erosion and floods. The consequences and the societal risks from floods are quantified. This study indicates that the numbers of fatalities and mortality per river flood event are lower compared with those caused by flash floods. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.