These authors contributed equally to this work.
Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges
Article first published online: 15 JAN 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Laser Photonics Rev. published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA Weinheim.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Laser & Photonics Reviews
Volume 7, Issue 5, pages 663–697, September 2013
How to Cite
Xu, C. T., Zhan, Q., Liu, H., Somesfalean, G., Qian, J., He, S. and Andersson-Engels, S. (2013), Upconverting nanoparticles for pre-clinical diffuse optical imaging, microscopy and sensing: Current trends and future challenges. Laser & Photon. Rev., 7: 663–697. doi: 10.1002/lpor.201200052
- Issue published online: 11 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 15 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 2 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 18 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Received: 2 JUL 2012
- Swedish Research Council. Grant Number: 621-2011-4265
- National Nature Science Foundation of China. Grant Number: 60978063
- Science and Technology Department of Zhejiang Province. Grant Number: 2010R50007
- Guangdong Innovative Research Team Program. Grant Number: 201001D0104799318
- quantum yield;
- photodynamic therapy;
- pulsed excitation
Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are a class of recently developed luminescent biomarkers that – in several aspects – are superior to organic dyes and quantum dots. UCNPs can emit spectrally narrow anti-Stokes shifted light with quantum yields which greatly exceed those of two-photon dyes for fluence rates relevant for deep tissue imaging. Compared with conventionally used Stokes-shifting fluorophores, UCNP-based imaging systems can acquire completely autofluorescence-free data with superb contrast. For diffuse optical imaging, the multi-photon process involved in the upconversion process can be used to obtain images with unprecedented resolution. These unique properties make UCNPs extremely attractive in the field of biophotonics. UCNPs have already been applied in microscopy, small-animal imaging, multi-modal imaging, highly sensitive bioassays, temperature sensing and photodynamic therapy. In this review, the current state-of-the-art UCNPs and their applications for diffuse imaging, microscopy and sensing targeted towards solving essential biological issues are discussed.