Laser & Photonics Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 1

January 2013

Volume 7, Issue 1

Pages A1–A9, 1–139, L1–L5

  1. Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Front Cover Picture: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(1)/2013

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370011

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The image depicts a silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode, which operates in the 1300–1600 nm wavelength range. The emission is based on defect luminescence. The optically active defects, shown in the inset, are created by hydrogen plasma treatment. The emission from these defects is strongly enhanced by the photonic crystal cavity.

      (Picture: A. Shakoor et al. 10.1002/lpor.201200043, pp. 114–121, in this issue)

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Back Cover Picture: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(1)/2013

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370012

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stimulated emission together with spontaneous emission from PbS nanocrystal in glassmatrix was observed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. It predicts the potential application for lasing based on this kind of material system.

      (Picture: F. Yue et al. 10.1002/lpor.201200075, pp. L1–L5, in this issue)

  3. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(1)/2013

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370013

  4. Call for Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Call For Papers: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(1)/2013 (page A1)

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300504

  5. Editorial Advisory Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Editorial Advisory Board: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(1)/2013 (page A2)

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300503

  6. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(1)/2013 (pages A3–A7)

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201300501

  7. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
  8. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales (pages 1–21)

      Ren-Min Ma, Rupert F. Oulton, Volker J. Sorger and Xiang Zhang

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201100040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Plasmon lasers are a new class of coherent optical frequency electromagnetic wave amplifiers that deliver intense, coherent and directional surface plasmons well below the diffraction barrier. The strongly confined electric fields in plasmon lasers can enhance significantly light-matter interactions and bring fundamentally new capabilities to bio-sensing, data storage, photolithography and optical communications.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit (pages 22–44)

      Joachim Fischer and Martin Wegener

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201100046

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      Direct laser writing has become a versatile and routine tool for the mask-free fabrication of polymer structures with lateral linewidths down to less than 100 nm. In contrast to its planar counterpart, electron-beam lithography, direct laser writing also allows for the making of three-dimensional structures. However, its spatial resolution has been restricted by diffraction. Clearly, linewidths and resolutions on the scale of few tens of nanometers and below are highly desirable for various applications in nanotechnology. In visible-light far-field fluorescence microscopy, the concept of stimulated emission depletion (STED) introduced in 1994 has led to spectacular record resolutions down to 5.6 nm in 2009. This review addresses approaches aiming at translating this success in optical microscopy to optical lithography. After explaining basic principles and limitations, possible depletion mechanisms and recent lithography experiments by various groups are summarized. Today, Abbe's diffraction barrier as well as the generalized two-photon Sparrow criterion have been broken in far-field optical lithography. For further future progress in resolution, the development of novel tailored photoresists in combination with attractive laser sources is of utmost importance.

    3. Passivation techniques for InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice detectors (pages 45–59)

      Elena A. Plis, Maya Narayanan Kutty and Sanjay Krishna

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201100029

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      InAs/(In,Ga)Sb Strained Layer Superlattices (SLSs) have made significant progress since they were first proposed as an infrared (IR) sensing material more than three decades ago. The basic material properties of SLS provide a prospective benefit in the realization of IR imagers with suppressed interband tunneling and Auger recombination processes, as well as high quantum efficiency and responsivity. With scaling of single pixel dimensions, the performance of focal plane arrays is strongly dependent on surface effects due to the large pixels’ surface/volume ratio. This article discusses the cause of surface leakage currents and various approaches of their reduction including dielectric passivation, passivation with organic materials (polyimide or various photoresists), passivation by overgrowth of wider bandgap material, and chalcogenide passivation. Performance of SLS detectors passivated by different techniques and operating in various regions of infrared spectrum has been compared.

    4. Whispering gallery microcavity lasers (pages 60–82)

      Lina He, Şahin Kaya Özdemir and Lan Yang

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201100032

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      Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical microresonators have attracted intense interests in the past decades. The combination of high quality factors (Q) and small mode volumes of modes in WGM resonators significantly enhances the light-matter interactions, making them excellent cavities for achieving low threshold and narrow linewidth lasers. In this Review, the progress in WGM microcavity lasers is summarized, and the laser performance considering resonator geometries and materials as well as lasing mechanisms is discussed. Label-free detection using WGM resonators has emerged as highly sensitive detection schemes. However, the resolution is mainly limited by the cavity Q factor which determines the mode linewidth. Microcavity lasers, due to their narrow laser spectral width, could greatly improve the detection resolution. Some recent developments in sensing using microcavity lasers are discussed.

    5. Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors (pages 83–108)

      Jacques Albert, Li-Yang Shao and Christophe Caucheteur

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201100039

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Optical fiber gratings have developed into a mature technology with a wide range of applications in various areas, including physical sensing for temperature, strain, acoustic waves and pressure. All of these applications rely on the perturbation of the period or refractive index of a grating inscribed in the fiber core as a transducing mechanism between a quantity to be measured and the optical spectral response of the fiber grating. This paper presents a relatively recent variant of the fiber grating concept, whereby a small tilt of the grating fringes causes coupling of the optical power from the core mode into a multitude of cladding modes, each with its own wavevector and mode field shape. The main consequence of doing so is that the differential response of the modes can then be used to multiply the sensing modalities available for a single fiber grating and also to increase the sensor resolution by taking advantage of the large amount of data available. In particular, the temperature cross-sensitivity and power source fluctuation noise inherent in all fiber grating designs can be completely eliminated by referencing all the spectral measurements to the wavelength and power level of the core mode back-reflection. The mode resonances have a quality factor of 105, and they can be observed in reflection or transmission. A thorough review of experimental and theoretical results will show that tilted fiber Bragg gratings can be used for high resolution refractometry, surface plasmon resonance applications, and multiparameter physical sensing (strain, vibration, curvature, and temperature).

  9. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. XOR/XNOR directed logic circuit based on coupled-resonator-induced transparency (pages 109–113)

      Yonghui Tian, Lei Zhang, Qianfan Xu and Lin Yang

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200036

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The coupled-resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) effect in parallel-coupled double microring resonators (MRRs) has been widely studied, and various applications based on the CRIT have been demonstrated. As an application of the CRIT, we propose and demonstrate a directed logic circuit that can implement the XOR and XNOR operations. Two electrical signals applied to the two MRRs represent the two operands of the logical operations, and the operational results are represented by the output optical signal. As a proof-of-concept, the thermo-optic modulating scheme is employed with an operational speed of 10 kbps.

    2. Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths (pages 114–121)

      Abdul Shakoor, Roberto Lo Savio, Paolo Cardile, Simone L. Portalupi, Dario Gerace, Karl Welna, Simona Boninelli, Giorgia Franzò, Francesco Priolo, Thomas F. Krauss, Matteo Galli and Liam O'Faolain

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200043

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Silicon is now firmly established as a high performance photonic material. Its only weakness is the lack of a native electrically driven light emitter that operates CW at room temperature, exhibits a narrow linewidth in the technologically important 1300–1600 nm wavelength window, is small and operates with low power consumption. Here, an electrically pumped all-silicon nano light source around 1300–1600 nm range is demonstrated at room temperature. Using hydrogen plasma treatment, nano-scale optically active defects are introduced into silicon, which then feed the photonic crystal nanocavity to enhance the electrically driven emission in a device via Purcell effect. A narrow (Δλ = 0.5 nm) emission line at 1515 nm wavelength with a power density of 0.4 mW/cm2 is observed, which represents the highest spectral power density ever reported from any silicon emitter. A number of possible improvements are also discussed, that make this scheme a very promising light source for optical interconnects and other important silicon photonics applications.

    3. In-band pumped Ti:Tm:LiNbO3 waveguide amplifier and low threshold laser (pages 122–131)

      Mathew George, Raimund Ricken, Viktor Quiring and Wolfgang Sohler

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200063

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The fabrication by diffusion doping and a detailed optical investigation of a Ti:Tm:LiNbO3 waveguide amplifier and of a Fabry-Pérot type Ti:Tm:LiNbO3 laser are reported. Both devices are in-band pumped by a laser diode at 1650 nm. The wave-guide amplifier shows broad-band optical gain in the wavelength range 1750 nm < λ < 1900 nm. The laser emits at 1890 nm, the longest emission wavelength of a Tm:LiNbO3 laser reported so far; also 1850 nm emission could be demonstrated. Laser threshold (1890 nm) is at 4 mW coupled pump power; the slope efficiency is ∼13.3%. Properties and potential of both devices are analyzed by extensive modeling.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber (page 132)

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370014

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The realization of whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing in polymer fibers is hindered by an appropriate method to dissolve the polymer and the gain material. In this work by Van Duong Ta et al. 10.1002/lpor.201200074, (pp. 133–139), microfibers fabricated by directly drawing from a dye doped polymer solution are exhibited as high quality microlasers and microsensors. Multimode and even single-mode lasing is observed from the fiber under optical pumping at room temperature. The linewidth of lasing mode is narrower than 0.09 nm. The lasing mechanism is unambiguously verified by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and ascribed to WGMs. Diameter- and polarization-dependent lasing characteristics are systematically investigated, showing good agreement with the theoretical calculation. Particularly, application of the fiber laser for refractive index sensing based on resonant shift of lasing mode is demonstrated and the sensitivity up to about 300 nm/RIU is achieved. The promising potential of high quality polymer microfibers as optical sensors and multi-function components for flexible photonic integrated systems is highly expected.

      Picture: Whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing emission (bright ring) is realized from a dye-doped polymer microfiber. This microlaser can serve as refractive index sensing of tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution based on the interaction of the THF molecules (solid spheres) with evanescent wave of WGM modes. The simulated field distribution of WGMs is inserted inside the fiber.

  11. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber (pages 133–139)

      Van Duong Ta, Rui Chen, Lin Ma, Yong Jun Ying and Han Dong Sun

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200074

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The realization of whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing in polymer fibers is hindered by an appropriate method to dissolve the polymer and the gain material. In this work, microfibers fabricated by directly drawing from a dye doped polymer solution are exhibited as high quality microlasers and microsensors. Multi-mode and even single-mode lasing is observed from the fiber under optical pumping at room temperature. The linewidth of lasing mode is narrower than 0.09 nm. The lasing mechanism is unambiguously verified by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and ascribed to WGMs. Diameter- and polarization-dependent lasing characteristics are systematically investigated, showing good agreement with the theoretical calculation. Particularly, application of the fiber laser for refractive index sensing based on resonant shift of lasing mode is demonstrated and the sensitivity up to about 300 nm/RIU is achieved. The promising potential of high quality polymer microfibers as optical sensors and multi-function components for flexible photonic integrated systems is highly expected.

  12. Letter

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Editorial
    9. Review Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Original Papers
    13. Letter
    1. Stimulated emission from PbS-quantum dots in glass matrix (pages L1–L5)

      Fangyu Yue, Jens W. Tomm, Detlef Kruschke and Peter Glas

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200075

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The luminescence behavior of PbS-quantum dots in glass matrix (PbS:Glass) is investigated. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence are applied in a wide range of excitation densities up to pulse energies exceeding 50 µJ/cm2. While perfect linear recombination is observed across four orders of magnitude, an additional radiative recombination mechanism emerges at an excitation density of 1 µ J/cm2 per pulse at 390 nm excitation and increases the external quantum efficiency. The time constant of this process is ∼20–40 ps. It is ascribed to stimulated emission. No hint to any non-linear non-radiative processes such as Auger recombination is observed. Thermal effects, however, still set limits. This is encouraging news for PbS:Glass as potential laser material.

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