Laser & Photonics Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 2

March 2013

Volume 7, Issue 2

Pages A11–A17, 141–302, L7–L15

  1. Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
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      Front Cover Picture: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(2)/2013

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nonlinear propagation of light in a graphene monolayer is studied theoretically. In this article, it is shown how the large intrinsic nonlinearity of graphene at optical frequencies enables the formation of quasi one-dimensional self-guided beams (spatial solitons) featuring subwavelength widths at moderate electric-field peak intensities. A novel class of nonlinear self-confined modes resulting from the hybridization of surface plasmon polaritons with graphene optical solitons is also demonstrated.

      (Picture:M. L. Nesterov et al. dx.doi.org/10.1002/lpor.201200079, pp. L7–L11, in this issue)

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
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      Back Cover Picture: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(2)/2013

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370021

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Proof-of-concept nanolithography system is designed and demonstrated for producing a sub-wavelength interference pattern. The system employs the spatially-confined diffraction in a hyperbolic medium arranged of alternating planar metallic and dielectric layers. Volume plasmon polaritons excited with the top mask propagate across the metallic-dielectric interfaces along the characteristic planes inside the hyperbolic slab. Shown is the numerically simulated grating nanolithography pattern

      (Picture: S. Ishii et al. dx.doi.org/10.1002/lpor.201200095, pp. 265–271, in this issue)

  3. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
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  4. Call for Papers

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    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
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  5. Editorial Advisory Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
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  6. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
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  7. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
    1. Microcavity plasmonics: strong coupling of photonic cavities and plasmons (pages 141–169)

      Ralf Ameling and Harald Giessen

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201100041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The understanding of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale lays the groundwork for many future technologies, applications and materials. The scope of this article is the investigation of coupled photonic-plasmonic systems consisting of a combination of photonic microcavities and metallic nanostructures. In such systems, it is possible to observe an exceptionally strong coupling between electromagnetic light modes of a resonator and collective electron oscillations (plasmons) in the metal. Furthermore, the results have shown that coupled photonic-plasmonic structures possess a considerably higher sensitivity to changes in their environment than conventional localized plasmon sensors due to a plasmon excitation phase shift that depends on the environment.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
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      Thermo-plasmonics: Using metallic nanostructures as nano-sources of heat (page 170)

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370025

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Recent years have seen a growing interest in using metal nanostructures to control temperature on the nanoscale. Under illumination at its plasmonic resonance, a metal nanoparticle features enhanced light absorption, turning it into an ideal nano-source of heat, remotely controllable using light. Such a powerful and flexible photothermal scheme is the basis of thermo-plasmonics. The recent progress of this emerging and fast-growing field is reviewed by. G. Baffou and R. Quidant (pp. 171-187). First, the physics of heat generation in metal nanoparticles is described, under both continuous and pulsed illumination. The second part is dedicated to numerical and experimental methods that have been developed to further understand and engineer plasmonic-assisted heating processes on the nanoscale. Finally, some of the most recent applications based on the heat generated by gold nanoparticles are surveyed, namely photothermal cancer therapy, nanosurgery, drug delivery, photothermal imaging, protein tracking, photoacoustic imaging, nano-chemistry and optofluidics.

  9. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
    1. Thermo-plasmonics: using metallic nanostructures as nano-sources of heat (pages 171–187)

      Guillaume Baffou and Romain Quidant

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200003

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Recent years have seen a growing interest in using metal nanostructures to control temperature on the nanoscale. Under illumination at its plasmonic resonance, a metal nanoparticle features enhanced light absorption, turning it into an ideal nano-source of heat, remotely controllable using light. Such a powerful and flexible photothermal scheme is the basis of thermo-plasmonics. Here, the recent progress of this emerging and fast-growing field is reviewed. First, the physics of heat generation in metal nanoparticles is described, under both continuous and pulsed illumination. The second part is dedicated to numerical and experimental methods that have been developed to further understand and engineer plasmonic-assisted heating processes on the nanoscale. Finally, some of the most recent applications based on the heat generated by gold nanoparticles are surveyed, namely photothermal cancer therapy, nano-surgery, drug delivery, photothermal imaging, protein tracking, photoacoustic imaging, nano-chemistry and optofluidics.

    2. Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing (pages 188–206)

      Denis D. Arslanov, Marius Spunei, Julien Mandon, Simona M. Cristescu, Stefan T. Persijn and Frans J. M. Harren

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201100036

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Over the past 10 years, with the advent of new crystals designs and a new generation of pump lasers, continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have developed into mature monochromatic light sources. Nowadays, cw OPOs can fulfill a wide variety of criteria for sensitive molecular gas sensing. It can access the mid-infrared wavelength region, where many molecules have their fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions, with high power. This high power combined with wide wavelength tuning and narrow linewidth creates excellent conditions for sensitive, high-resolution spectroscopy. OPOs combined with robust methods, such as photoacoustic spectroscopy and cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, are well suited for field measurements and remote-sensing applications. The wide tunability of cw OPOs allows detection of larger molecules with broad absorption band structures, and its fast scanning capabilities allow rapid detection of trace gases, the latter is a demand for life-science applications. After a short introduction about the physical principle of cw OPOs, with its most recent physical developments, this review focuses on sensitive molecular gas sensing with a variety of spectroscopic applications in atmospheric and life sciences.

    3. Photonic time-stretch digitizer and its extension to real-time spectroscopy and imaging (pages 207–263)

      Ali M. Fard, Shalabh Gupta and Bahram Jalali

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200015

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Real-time wideband digitizers are the key building block in many systems including oscilloscopes, signal intelligence, electronic warfare, and medical diagnostics systems. Continually extending the bandwidth of digitizers has hence become a central challenge in electronics. Fortunately, it has been shown that photonic pre-processing of wideband signals can boost the performance of electronic digitizers. In this article, the underlying principle of the time-stretch analog-to-digital converter (TSADC) that addresses the demands on resolution, bandwidth, and spectral efficiency is reviewed. In the TSADC, amplified dispersive Fourier transform is used to slow down the analog signal in time and hence to compress its bandwidth. Simultaneous signal amplification during the time-stretch process compensates for parasitic losses leading to high signal-to-noise ratio. This powerful concept transforms the analog signal's time scale such that it matches the slower time scale of the digitizer. A summary of time-stretch technology's extension to high-throughput single-shot spectroscopy, a technique that led to the discovery of optical rouge waves, is also presented. Moreover, its application in high-throughput imaging, which has recently led to identification of rogue cancer cells in blood with record sensitivity, is discussed.

  10. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
    1. Sub-wavelength interference pattern from volume plasmon polaritons in a hyperbolic medium (pages 265–271)

      Satoshi Ishii, Alexander V. Kildishev, Evgenii Narimanov, Vladimir M. Shalaev and Vladimir P. Drachev

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200095

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inside of a hyperbolic medium, the principal components of the permittivity tensor have opposite signs causing the medium to exhibit a ‘metallicbr’ type of response to light wave sin one direction, and a ‘dielectric’ response in the other. Our study shows that inside hyperbolic media, volume plasmon polaritons (VPPs) propagate along the characteristic planes, forming distinct, directionally dependent optical responses. This is similar to the propagation of conventional surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) along the planar interfaces separating the isotropic dielectrics and metallic slabs. Interestingly, the plasmon polariton propagates along the resonance cone in a volume of hyperbolic metamaterial crossing the interfaces of the constitutive materials. The Young's double-slit scheme is used to study the spatially-confined diffraction in a hyperbolic slab, made of many thin planar layers of a metal and dielectric, to obtain the sub-wavelength interference pattern at the output interface. Proof-of-concept systems for producing such patterns applicable to nanolithography and subwavelength probes are demonstrated.

  11. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
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      Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference (page 272)

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel method for switching the direction of surface plasmon polarition (SPP) launching is proposed by Seung-Yeol Lee et al. (pp. 273-279). The principle behind the switching mechanism is based on the relative phase difference between the reference beam and the control beam. Selective guidance of the direction of SPP can be explained by the composition of the charge parity that is induced near the slit edge, which is caused by interference created by two incident beams. The switching of SPP launching direction could be implemented by simple phase modulation of the control beam when the slit parameters satisfy the specific conditions at the designed specific wavelength. An experimental demonstration, in good agreement with numerical results, shows that our configuration of SPP switching can be operated by a quite simple interaction.

  12. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
    1. Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference (pages 273–279)

      Seung-Yeol Lee, Wooyoung Lee, Yohan Lee, Jun-Yeon Won, Joonsoo Kim, Il-Min Lee and Byoungho Lee

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200089

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel method for switching the direction of surface plasmon polarition (SPP) launching is proposed. The principle behind the switching mechanism is based on the relative phase difference between the reference beam and the control beam. Selective guidance of the direction of SPP can be explained by the composition of the charge parity that is induced near the slit edge, which is caused by interference created by two incident beams. The switching of SPP launching direction could be implemented by simple phase modulation of the control beam when the slit parameters satisfy the specific conditions at the designed specific wavelength. An experimental demonstration, in good agreement with numerical results, shows that our configuration of SPP switching can be operated by a quite simple interaction.

  13. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
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      Whispering-gallery mode lasing from patterned molecular single-crystalline microcavity array (page 280)

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370027

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic single-crystalline materials have attracted great attention for laser applications. However, the fabrication of laser resonators and patterns of crystals is still an intractable problem. Organic single crystals have been limited to fundamental property studies despite their superior photonic characteristics. In this work by Hong-Hua Fang et al.(p. 281-288), whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators of BP1T and BP2T crystalline materials have been fabricated through a combination method with improved lithography and dry etching. Crystalline microresonators with different geometries over a large area are top-down fabricated with submicrometer spatial resolution. WGM lasing oscillation from circular, hexagonal, pentagonal and square resonators are definitively observed. The BP1T and BP2T crystals are characterized with high refractive index, and stable lasing in aqueous solution is demonstrated besides in the air environment. It is expected that organic crystalline materials would be used for the practical applications in a variety of organic electronic and optical devices.

  14. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
    1. Whispering-gallery mode lasing from patterned molecular single-crystalline microcavity array (pages 281–288)

      Hong-Hua Fang, Ran Ding, Shi-Yang Lu, Yue-De Yang, Qi-Dai Chen, Jing Feng, Yong-Zhen Huang and Hong-Bo Sun

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200072

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic single-crystalline materials have attracted great attention for laser applications. However, the fabrication of laser resonators and pattern of crystals are still intractable problems. Organic single crystals have been limited to fundamental property studies despite their superior photonic characteristics. In this work, whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators of BP1T and BP2T crystalline materials have been fabricated through a combination method with improved lithography and dry etching. Crystalline microresonators with different geometries over a large area are top-down fabricated with submicrometer spatial resolution. WGM lasing oscillation from circular, hexagonal, pentagonal and square resonators is definitively observed. The BP1T and BP2T crystals are characterized with high refractive index, and stable lasing in aqueous solution is demonstrated besides in the air environment. It is expected that organic crystalline materials would be used for the practical applications in a variety of organic electronic and optical devices.

    2. Particle sorting using a subwavelength optical fiber (pages 289–296)

      Yao Zhang and Baojun Li

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200087

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Size-based particle sorting using a subwavelength optical fiber was demonstrated with 600-nm and 1-μm sizes of polystyrene particles. Optical forces acting on the particles were calculated based on three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations at wavelengths of 808, 1047, and 1310 nm propagating in a subwavelength optical fiber with diameter of 800 nm. Calculations indicate that by launching two counterpropagating laser beams at different wavelengths into the fiber, the directions of the resultant optical scattering forces acting on the two particle sizes can be opposite along the fiber, which leads to a countertransport of the particles. To verify the theoretical prediction, experiments were performed using the 800-nm fiber to sort the two particle sizes. The results show that with two counterpropagating beams at 808 and 1310 nm, a continuous particle sorting was achieved. Measured particle velocities were in agreement with the theoretical calculations.

    3. Quantum junction plasmons in graphene dimers (pages 297–302)

      Sukosin Thongrattanasiri, Alejandro Manjavacas, Peter Nordlander and F. Javier García de Abajo

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200101

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The interaction between doped graphene nanoislands connected by narrow junctions constitutes an ideal testbed to probe quantum effects in plasmonic systems. Here, the interaction between graphene plasmons in neighboring nanoislands is predicted to be extremely sensitive to the size and shape of the junctions. The reported ab initio calculations reveal three different regimes of interaction: (1) for narrow bridges (<4 carbon-atom rows), the conductance of the junction is too low to allow electron transport and the optical response is dominated by a characteristic bonding dipolar dimer mode that also appears in a classical description; (2) for wider junctions (4-8 carbon rows), a strong charge polarization is induced across the junction, which gives rise to a novel junction plasmon that has no counterpart in a classical description; (3) for even wider junctions (≥8 rows), their conductance is sufficiently large to allow charge transport between the two graphene islands, resulting in a pronounced charge-transfer plasmon, which can also be described classically. This work opens a new path for the investigation of intrinsic plasmon quantum effects.

  15. Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Call for Papers
    6. Editorial Advisory Board
    7. Contents
    8. Review Articles
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Review Articles
    11. Original Papers
    12. Frontispiece
    13. Original Papers
    14. Frontispiece
    15. Original Papers
    16. Letters
    1. Graphene supports the propagation of subwavelength optical solitons (pages L7–L11)

      Maxim L. Nesterov, Jorge Bravo-Abad, Alexey Yu. Nikitin, Francisco J. García-Vidal and Luis Martin-Moreno

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200079

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nonlinear propagation of light in a graphene monolayer is studied theoretically. It is shown how the large intrinsic nonlinearity of graphene at optical frequencies enables the formation of quasi one-dimensional self-guided beams (spatial solitons) featuring subwavelength widths at moderate electric-field peak intensities. A novel class of nonlinear self-confined modes resulting from the hybridization of surface plasmon polaritons with graphene optical solitons is also demonstrated.

    2. An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot (pages L12–L15)

      Alejandro Ortega-Moñux, Carlos Alonso-Ramos, Alejandro Maese-Novo, Robert Halir, Luis Zavargo-Peche, Diego Pérez-Galacho, Iñigo Molina-Fernández, J. Gonzalo Wangüemert-Pérez, Pavel Cheben, Jens H. Schmid, Jean Lapointe, Danxia Xu and Siegfried Janz

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200106

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multimode interference couplers (MMIs) are fundamental building blocks in photonic integrated circuits. Here it is experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, a two-fold length reduction in an MMI coupler without any penalty on device performance. The design is based on a slotted 2 × 2 MMI fabricated on a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The slot is implemented with a subwavelength grating (SWG) comprising holes fully etched down to the oxide cladding, thereby allowing single etch step fabrication. The device has been designed using an in-house tool based on the Fourier Eigenmode Expansion Method. It has a footprint of only 3.5 μm x 23 μm and it exhibits a measured extinction ratio better than 15 dB within the full C-band (1530 nm‒1570 nm). SWG engineered slots thus offer excellent perspectives for the practical realization of MMIs couplers with substantially reduced footprint yet with outstanding performance.

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