Laser & Photonics Reviews

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 3

May 2013

Volume 7, Issue 3

Pages A19–A24, 303–452, L17–L20

  1. Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Comment
    9. Original Papers
    10. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Front Cover Picture: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(3)/2013

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370030

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An efficiency versus current curve of a conventional GaInN-based LED showing the droop phenomenon. Proposed droop mechanisms including Auger recombination and carrier leakage together with radiative recombination are illustrated on an energy band diagramof a GaInN-based LED.

      (Picture: J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J.KyuKim, dx.doi.org/10.1002/lpor.201200025 pp.408–421, in this issue)

  2. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Comment
    9. Original Papers
    10. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(3)/2013

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370031

  3. Call for Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Comment
    9. Original Papers
    10. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Call For Papers: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(3)/2013 (page A19)

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370032

  4. Editorial Advisory Board

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Comment
    9. Original Papers
    10. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Editorial Advisory Board: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(3)/2013 (page A20)

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370033

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Comment
    9. Original Papers
    10. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: Laser & Photon. Rev. 7(3)/2013 (pages A21–A24)

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201370034

  6. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Comment
    9. Original Papers
    10. Letter
    1. Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits (pages 303–328)

      Daoxin Dai, Liu Liu, Shiming Gao, Dan-Xia Xu and Sailing He

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200023

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polarization management is very important for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and their applications. Due to geometrical anisotropy and fabrication inaccuracies, the characteristics of the guided transverse-electrical (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes are generally different. Polarization-dependent dispersion and polarization-dependent loss are such manifestations in PICs. These issues become more severe in high index contrast structures such as nanophotonic waveguides made of silicon-on-insulator (SOI), which has been regarded as a good platform for optical interconnects because of the compatibility with CMOS processing. Recently, polarization division multiplexing (PDM) with coherent detection using silicon photonics has also attracted much attention. This trend further highlights the importance of polarization management in silicon PICs. The authors review their work on polarization management for silicon PICs using the polarization independence and polarization diversity methods. Polarization issues and solutions in PICs made of SOI nanowires and ridge waveguides are discussed.

    2. Fano resonance in novel plasmonic nanostructures (pages 329–349)

      Mohsen Rahmani, Boris Luk'yanchuk and Minghui Hong

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200021

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      Recently, a large number of experimental and theoretical works have revealed a variety of plasmonic nanostructures with the capabilities of Fano resonance (FR) generation. Among these structures, plasmonic oligomers consisting of packed metallic nanoelements with certain configurations have been of significant interest. Oligomers can exhibit FR independently of the polarization direction based on dipole–dipole antiparallel modes without the need to excite challenging high-order modes. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of recent achievements on FR of plasmonic nanostructures in recent years. Meanwhile, more attention is given to the optical properties of plasmonic oligomers due to the high potential of such structures in optical spectra engineering.

    3. Optical microfiber passive components (pages 350–384)

      Rand Ismaeel, Timothy Lee, Ming Ding, Mohammed Belal and Gilberto Brambilla

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200024

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Optical microfiber waveguides with diameters close to the wavelength of light possess an intriguing combination of properties, such a tight modal confinement, tailorable dispersion, and high nonlinearity, which have been utilized in many passive applications. Here, the key fabrication techniques and optical properties of microfibers are introduced, followed by a discussion of the various passive microfiber devices and sensors. Applications exploiting their strong confinement are reviewed, including harmonic generation, supercontinuum sources, gratings, tips for optical trapping and intracellular sensing and subwavelength light sources, as well as devices based on large evanescent fields such as couplers, interferometers, optical manipulators, sensors, and resonators. Furthermore, the properties and practical intricacies of manufacturing various microfiber resonators are evaluated, with a focus on their applications in sensing ranging from temperature monitoring to current, pressure, refractive index and chemicals detection.

    4. Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications (pages 385–407)

      Anatoliy Y. Vorobyev and Chunlei Guo

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200017

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      This paper reviews a new field of direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications. Over the past few years, direct femtosecond laser surface processing has distinguished itself from other conventional laser ablation methods and become one of the best ways to create surface structures at nano- and micro-scales on metals and semiconductors due to its flexibility, simplicity, and controllability in creating various types of nano/microstructures that are suitable for a wide range of applications. Significant advancements were made recently in applying this technique to altering optical properties of metals and semiconductors. As a result, highly absorptive metals and semiconductors were created, dubbed as the “black metals” and “black silicon”. Furthermore, various colors other than black have been created through structural coloring on metals. Direct femtosecond laser processing is also capable of producing novel materials with wetting properties ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. In the extreme case, superwicking materials were created that can make liquids run vertically uphill against the gravity over an extended surface area. Though impressive scientific achievements have been made so far, direct femtosecond laser processing is still a young research field and many exciting findings are expected to emerge on its horizon.

    5. You have free access to this content
      Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures (pages 408–421)

      Jaehee Cho, E. Fred Schubert and Jong Kyu Kim

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200025

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Efficiency droop, i.e. the loss of efficiency at high operating current, afflicts nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The droop phenomenon is currently the subject of intense research, as it retards the advancement of solid-state lighting which is just starting to supplant fluorescent as well as incandescent lighting. Although the technical community does not yet have consented to a single cause of droop, this article provides a summary of the present state of droop research, reviews currently discussed droop mechanisms, and presents a recently developed theoretical model for the efficiency droop. In the theoretical model, carrier leakage out of the active region caused by the asymmetry of the pn junction, specifically the disparity between electron and hole concentrations and mobilities, is discussed in detail. The model is in agreement with the droop's key behaviors not only for GaInN LEDs but also for AlGaInP LEDs.

  7. Comment

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Comment
    9. Original Papers
    10. Letter
    1. Comment on SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser (pages 422–423)

      Keith G. Wilcox and Anne C. Tropper

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200110

      The authors of the recent paper titled “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser” [1] make the claim that Kerr lens mode-locking has been observed in a SESAM free semiconductor disk laser. However, the data presented in the manuscript at best weakly support the central claim that this laser is mode-locked and at worst are simply the characterisation of a continuous-wave (CW) laser. The physical principles of mode-locking are clearly defined in many text books as well as in the first paper reporting mode-locking [2] and more recently the work of H. A. Haus [3]. When reporting a new mode-locking technique for a particular class of laser, it is essential to pay detailed attention to the measured characteristics. It is also helpful to comment on the strength of the mode-locking mechanism. In this case, for example, the effective Kerr lens could be calculated, or better, experimentally measured, to further support the central claim.

  8. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Comment
    9. Original Papers
    10. Letter
    1. Cerussite, PbCO3 – a new Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS)-active crystal with high-order Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing : On the 50th anniversary of the discovery of stimulated Raman scattering (pages 425–431)

      Alexander A. Kaminskii, Ladislav Bohatý, Hanjo Rhee, André Kaltenbach, Oliver Lux, Hans J. Eichler, Reinhard Rückamp and Petra Becker

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200123

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Orthorhombic PbCO3, known as natural crystal cerussite, is presented as a new Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS)-active crystal. With picosecond laser pumping high-order Raman-induced χ(3) generation is observed. All registered Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands in the visible and near-IR are identified and attributed to the SRS-promoting phonon mode A1g of the carbonate group, with ωSRS ≈ 1054 cm−1. The first Stokes steady-state Raman gain coefficient in the visible spectral range is estimated as well to a value not less than 4.6 cm·GW−1.

    2. Random laser from engineered nanostructures obtained by surface tension driven lithography (pages 432–438)

      Neda Ghofraniha, Ilenia Viola, Francesca Di Maria, Giovanna Barbarella, Giuseppe Gigli and Claudio Conti

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200105

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The random laser emission from the functionalized thienyl-S,S-dioxide quinquethiophene (T5OCx) in confined patterns with different shapes is demonstrated. Functional patterning of the light emitter organic material in well defined features is obtained by spontaneous molecular self-assembly guided by surface tension driven (STD) lithography. Such controlled supramolecular nano-aggregates act as scattering centers allowing the fabrication of one-component organic lasers with no external resonator and with desired shape and efficiency. Atomic force microscopy shows that different geometric pattern with different supramolecular organization obtained by the lithographic process tailors the coherent emission properties by controlling the distribution and the size of the random scatterers.

    3. Relief Bragg reflectors inscribed on the capillary walls of solid-core photonic crystal fibers (pages 439–443)

      Maria Konstantaki, Paul Childs, Michele Sozzi and Stavros Pissadakis

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200115

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The inscription of relief Bragg grating reflectors on the capillary walls of a solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using laser radiation is presented. The inscription method followed is based on the infiltration and adsorption of a thin layer of toluene on the capillaries of the PCF and the subsequent exposure of the infiltrated fiber using 248-nm excimer laser radiation and phase mask interference. Gratings are characterized spectrally and by scanning electron microscopy while their sensing capabilities are exemplified by infiltrating them with organic solvents. Thermal studies revealed that the gratings exhibit high thermal endurance characteristics, withstanding tens of hours annealing at 950°C.

    4. Material response during nanosecond laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica (pages 444–452)

      Stavros G. Demos, Raluca A. Negres, Rajesh N. Raman, Alexander M. Rubenchik and Michael D. Feit

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The material response following nanosecond, UV laser induced breakdown inside of the exit surface of fused silica is investigated using multimodal time resolved microscopy. The study spans up to about 75 ns delay from the onset of material modification during the laser pulse through the observation of material ejection. A number of distinct processes were identified, including: a) the onset of optical absorption in the material arising from the buildup of an electronic excitation, b) the expansion of the hot modified region (plasma) along the surface and inside the bulk, c) the formation of radial and circumferential cracks, d) the swelling of the affected region on the surface and, e) the onset of ejection of material clusters at about 30 ns delay and its progression to a well-defined jet by about 75 ns delay. Limited theoretical modeling is used to aid the interpretation of the data.

  9. Letter

    1. Top of page
    2. Front Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. Call for Papers
    5. Editorial Advisory Board
    6. Contents
    7. Review Articles
    8. Comment
    9. Original Papers
    10. Letter
    1. You have free access to this content
      Quasi phase matching in femtosecond pulse volume structured x-cut lithium niobate (pages L17–L20)

      Jens Thomas, Vinzenz Hilbert, Reinhard Geiss, Thomas Pertsch, Andreas Tünnermann and Stefan Nolte

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201200116

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      All optical inscription of quasi phase matching structures in an x-cut LiNbO3 crystal is demonstrated. Quasi phase matching is obtained by periodically lowering the nonlinear refractive index of the crystal using focussed ultrashort pulses. The structures were used to frequency double 1.55 µm light. The converted signal could be enhanced by a factor of 70 with respect to the unmodified material. From these measurement it could be deduced that the nonlinearity has been periodically damped up to 20%.

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